Chaucer, CT, Knight’s Tale

Index to this series

I had read the Knight’s Tale in college and written an essay about it, but I could remember little of the Tale itself or the essay.

After obtaining and annotating the text of the Tale as below, I went back to reread my old essay after thirty-six years. It’s better than I feared, and it drew my attention to points that I had missed in the latest reading of the Knight’s Tale itself. But my concerns are somehow different now.

This is what I say now about the Knight’s Tale. It is about the resolution of a love triangle. Palamon and Arcite both love Emily. Arcite wins her, but Palamon ends up with her.

By the anachronistic conceit of the teller of the tale (be he Chaucer or Chaucer’s Knight), Palamon and Arcite are knights in ancient Greece. Theseus arranges for them to fight one another for the hand of Emily. Palamon prays Venus to win Emily or die. Arcite prays Mars to give him victory. Emily prays Diana to leave her single, if possible.

Maidenhead is not allowed. However, Arcite will go to the man who loves her most. Victory is Arcite’s, but then accident takes his life, and Theseus gives Emily to Palamon.

I could keep adding details until I had repeated the whole story told in Chaucer’s verses; but I am not going to do that.

A question raised in our seminar is, What does it mean that Chaucer has a Christian knight tell a story about knights who worship pagan gods?

Palamon and Arcite get what they say they want, literally. Oracles work that way:

  • By fleeing Corinth, Oedipus does avoid killing and marrying (respectively!) the father and mother who raised him. The price is doing it instead to the ones who begot him.

  • By attacking Persia, Croesus does achieve what the oracle has enticed him with, the destruction of a great empire. It only turns out to be his own, not the Persians’.

Gods taken nominally from the Roman pantheon appear in the Knight’s Tale, but so does the Prime Mover.

The firste moevere of the cause above,
Whan he first made the faire cheyne of love,
Greet was theffect, and heigh was his entente;
Wel wiste he why, and what ther-of he mente.

Iamque domos patrias, Scithice post aspera gentis Prelia, laurigero, &c.
[Statius, Theb. xii. 519.]

“And now (Theseus drawing nigh his) native land in laurelled car after battling with the Scithian folk, etc.”

WHYLOM, as olde stories tellen us,
 860Ther was a duk that highte Theseus;
Of Athenes he was lord and governour,

And in his tyme swich a conquerour,
That gretter was ther noon under the sonne.
Ful many a riche contree hadde he wonne;
 865What with his wisdom and his chivalrye,
He conquered al the regne of Femenye,
That whylom was y-cleped Scithia;
 (10)And weddede the quene Ipolita,
And broghte hir hoom with him in his contree

 870With muchel glorie and greet solempnitee,
And eek hir yonge suster Emelye.
And thus with victorie and with melodye
Lete I this noble duk to Athenes ryde,
And al his hoost, in armes, him bisyde.


 875And certes, if it nere to long to here,
I wolde han told yow fully the manere,
How wonnen was the regne of Femenye
 (20)By Theseus, and by his chivalrye;
And of the grete bataille for the nones
 880Bitwixen Athenës and Amazones;
And how asseged was Ipolita,
The faire hardy quene of Scithia;
And of the feste that was at hir weddinge,
And of the tempest at hir hoom-cominge;
 885But al that thing I moot as now forbere.
I have, God woot, a large feeld to ere,
And wayke been the oxen in my plough.
 (30)The remenant of the tale is long y-nough.
I wol nat letten eek noon of this route;
 890Lat every felawe telle his tale aboute,
And lat see now who shal the soper winne;
And ther I lefte, I wol ageyn biginne.


This duk, of whom I make mencioun,
When he was come almost unto the toun,
 895In al his wele and in his moste pryde,
He was war, as he caste his eye asyde,
Wher that ther kneled in the hye weye
 (40)A companye of ladies,
tweye and tweye,
Ech after other, clad in clothes blake;
 900But swich a cry and swich a wo they make,
That in this world nis creature livinge,
That herde swich another weymentinge;
And of this cry they nolde never stenten,
Til they the reynes of his brydel henten.


 905‘What folk ben ye, that at myn hoom-cominge
Perturben so my feste with cryinge?’
Quod Theseus, ‘have ye so greet envye
 (50)Of myn honour, that thus compleyne and crye?
Or who hath yow misboden, or offended?
 910And telleth me if it may been amended;
And why that ye ben clothed thus in blak?’


The eldest lady of hem alle spak,
When she hadde swowned with a deedly chere,
That it was routhe for to seen and here,
 915And seyde: ‘Lord, to whom Fortune hath yiven
Victorie, and as a conquerour to liven,
Noght greveth us your glorie and your honour;
 (60)But we biseken mercy and socour.
Have mercy on our wo and our distresse.
 920Som drope of pitee, thurgh thy gentillesse,
Up-on us wrecched wommen lat thou falle.
For certes, lord, ther nis noon of us alle,
That she nath been a duchesse or a quene;
Now be we caitifs, as it is wel sene:
 925Thanked be Fortune, and hir false wheel,

That noon estat assureth to be weel.
And certes, lord, to abyden your presence,
 (70)Here in the temple of the goddesse Clemence
We han ben waytinge al this fourtenight;
 930Now help us, lord, sith it is in thy might.’


I wrecche, which that wepe and waille thus,
Was whylom wyf to king Capaneus,
That starf at Thebes,
cursed be that day!
And alle we, that been in this array,
 935And maken al this lamentacioun,
We losten alle our housbondes at that toun,
Whyl that the sege ther-aboute lay.
 (80)And yet now the olde Creon, weylaway!
That lord is now of Thebes the citee,

 940Fulfild of ire and of iniquitee,
He, for despyt, and for his tirannye,
To do the dede bodyes vileinye,
Of alle our lordes, whiche that ben slawe,
Hath alle the bodyes on an heep y-drawe,
 945And wol nat suffren hem, by noon assent,
Neither to been y-buried nor y-brent,
But maketh houndes ete hem in despyt.’
 (90)And with that word, with-outen more respyt,
They fillen gruf, and cryden pitously,
 950‘Have on us wrecched wommen som mercy,
And lat our sorwe sinken in thyn herte.’


This gentil duk doun from his courser sterte
With herte pitous, whan he herde hem speke.
Him thoughte that his herte wolde breke,
 955Whan he saugh hem so pitous and so mat,
That whylom weren of so greet estat.
And in his armes he hem alle up hente,
 (100)And hem conforteth in ful good entente;
And swoor his ooth, as he was trewe knight,
 960He wolde doon so ferforthly his might
Up-on the tyraunt Creon hem to wreke,
That al the peple of Grece sholde speke
How Creon was of Theseus y-served,

As he that hadde his deeth ful wel deserved.
 965And right anoon, with-outen more abood,
His baner he desplayeth, and forth rood
To Thebes-ward, and al his host bisyde;
 (110)No neer Athenës wolde he go ne ryde,
Ne take his ese fully half a day,
 970But onward on his wey that night he lay;
And sente anoon Ipolita the quene,
And Emelye hir yonge suster shene,
Un-to the toun of Athenës to dwelle;
And forth he rit; ther nis namore to telle.

Theseus goes straight to the next battle, as the Knight himself had come straight from battle in the Prologue.

Some version of “ther nis namore to telle” will have occurred four times.

 975The rede statue of Mars, with spere and targe,
So shyneth in his whyte baner large,
That alle the feeldes gliteren up and doun;
 (120)And by his baner born is his penoun
Of gold ful riche, in which ther was y-bete
 980The Minotaur, which that he slough in Crete.
Thus rit this duk, thus rit this conquerour,
And in his host of chivalrye the flour,
Til that he cam to Thebes, and alighte
Faire in a feeld, ther as he thoghte fighte.
 985But shortly for to speken of this thing,
With Creon, which that was of Thebes king,
He faught, and slough him manly as a knight

 (130)In pleyn bataille, and putte the folk to flight;
And by assaut he wan the citee after,
 990And rente adoun bothe wal, and sparre, and rafter;
And to the ladyes he restored agayn
The bones of hir housbondes
that were slayn,
To doon obsequies, as was tho the gyse.
But it were al to long for to devyse
 995The grete clamour and the waymentinge
That the ladyes made at the brenninge
Of the bodyes, and the grete honour
 (140)That Theseus, the noble conquerour,
Doth to the ladyes, whan they from him wente;
 1000But shortly for to telle is myn entente.
Whan that this worthy duk, this Theseus,
Hath Creon slayn, and wonne Thebes thus,
Stille in that feeld he took al night his reste,
And dide with al the contree as him leste.

The Knight is going to have used “shortly” 14 times, by my count.

 1005To ransake in the tas of bodyes dede,
Hem for to strepe of harneys and of wede,
The pilours diden bisinesse and cure,
 (150)After the bataille and disconfiture.
And so bifel, that in the tas they founde,
 1010Thurgh-girt with many a grevous blody wounde,
Two yonge knightes ligging by and by,
Bothe in oon armes, wroght ful richely,
Of whiche two, Arcita hight that oon,
And that other knight hight Palamon.

 1015Nat fully quike, ne fully dede they were,
But by hir cote-armures, and by hir gere,
The heraudes knewe hem best in special,
 (160)As they that weren of the blood royal
Of Thebes, and of sustren two y-born.

 1020Out of the tas the pilours han hem torn,
And han hem caried softe un-to the tente
Of Theseus, and he ful sone hem sente
To Athenës, to dwellen in prisoun
Perpetuelly, he nolde no raunsoun.

 1025And whan this worthy duk hath thus y-don,
He took his host, and hoom he rood anon
With laurer crowned as a conquerour;
 (170)And there he liveth, in Ioye and in honour,
Terme of his lyf; what nedeth wordes mo?
 1030And in a tour, in angwish and in wo,
Dwellen this Palamoun and eek Arcite,
For evermore, ther may no gold hem quyte.

According to the OED, “tass” (heap, pile, stack) is now only dialectical, but occurs in Dutch as tas.

“What nedeth wordes mo?” will occur once more, in line 1715.

This passeth yeer by yeer, and day by day,
Til it fil ones, in a morwe of May,
 1035That Emelye,
that fairer was to sene
Than is the lilie upon his stalke grene,
And fressher than the May with floures newe—
 (180)For with the rose colour stroof hir hewe,
I noot which was the fairer of hem two—
 1040Er it were day, as was hir wone to do,
She was arisen, and al redy dight;

For May wol have no slogardye a-night.
The sesoun priketh every gentil herte,
And maketh him out of his sleep to sterte,
 1045And seith, ‘Arys, and do thyn observaunce.’
This maked Emelye have remembraunce
To doon honour to May, and for to ryse.
 (190)Y-clothed was she fresh, for to devyse;
Hir yelow heer was broyded in a tresse,
 1050Bihinde hir bak, a yerde long, I gesse.
And in the gardin, at the sonne up-riste,
She walketh up and doun, and as hir liste
She gadereth floures, party whyte and rede,
To make a sotil gerland for hir hede,
 1055And as an aungel hevenly she song.
The grete tour, that was so thikke and strong,
Which of the castel was the chief dongeoun,
 (200)(Ther-as the knightes weren in prisoun,
Of whiche I tolde yow, and tellen shal)
 1060Was evene Ioynant to the gardin-wal,
Ther as this Emelye hadde hir pleyinge.
Bright was the sonne, and cleer that morweninge,
And Palamon, this woful prisoner,
As was his wone, by leve of his gayler,
 1065Was risen, and romed in a chambre on heigh,
In which he al the noble citee seigh,
And eek the gardin, ful of braunches grene,
 (210)Ther-as this fresshe Emelye the shene
Was in hir walk, and romed up and doun.
 1070This sorweful prisoner, this Palamoun,
Goth in the chambre, roming to and fro,
And to him-self compleyning of his wo;
That he was born, ful ofte he seyde, ‘alas!’
And so bifel, by aventure or cas,
 1075That thurgh a window, thikke of many a barre
Of yren greet, and square as any sparre,
He caste his eye upon Emelya,
 (220)And ther-with-al he bleynte, and cryde ‘a!’

As though he stongen were un-to the herte.
 1080And with that cry Arcite anon up-sterte,
And seyde,
‘Cosin myn, what eyleth thee,
That art so pale and deedly on to see?
Why crydestow? who hath thee doon offence?
For Goddes love, tak al in pacience
 1085Our prisoun, for it may non other be;
Fortune hath yeven us this adversitee.
Som wikke aspect or disposicioun
 (230)Of Saturne,
by sum constellacioun,
Hath yeven us this, al-though we hadde it sworn;
 1090So stood the heven whan that we were born;
We moste endure it: this is the short and pleyn.’

The Squire was fresh as May, but now Emily is fresher. The Pilgrims set out in April, and now Emily is maying. Compare:

(So priketh hem nature in hir corages):
Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages

And seith, ‘Arys, and do thyn observaunce.’
This maked Emelye have remembraunce

This Palamon answerde, and seyde ageyn,
‘Cosyn, for sothe, of this opinioun
Thou hast a veyn imaginacioun.
 1095This prison caused me nat for to crye.
But I was hurt right now thurgh-out myn yë
In-to myn herte, that wol my bane be.
 (240)The fairnesse of that lady that I see
Yond in the gardin romen to and fro,
 1100Is cause of al my crying and my wo.
I noot wher she be womman or goddesse;
But Venus is it, soothly, as I gesse.’
And ther-with-al on kneës doun he fil,
And seyde: ‘Venus, if it be thy wil
 1105Yow in this gardin thus to transfigure
Bifore me, sorweful wrecche creature,
Out of this prisoun help that we may scapen.
 (250)And if so be my destinee be shapen
By eterne word to dyen in prisoun,
 1110Of our linage have som compassioun,
That is so lowe y-broght by tirannye.’
And with that word Arcite gan espye
Wher-as this lady romed to and fro.
And with that sighte hir beautee hurte him so,
 1115That, if that Palamon was wounded sore,
Arcite is hurt as muche as he, or more.
And with a sigh he seyde pitously:
 (260)The fresshe beautee sleeth me sodeynly
Of hir that rometh in the yonder place;
 1120And, but I have hir mercy and hir grace,
That I may seen hir atte leeste weye,
I nam but deed; ther nis namore to seye.’


This Palamon, whan he tho wordes herde,
Dispitously he loked, and answerde:
 1125‘Whether seistow this in ernest or in pley?’


‘Nay,’ quod Arcite, ‘in ernest, by my fey!
God help me so, me list ful yvele pleye.’


 (270)This Palamon gan knitte his browes tweye:
‘It nere,’ quod he, ‘to thee no greet honour
 1130For to be fals, ne for to be traytour
To me, that am thy cosin and thy brother
Y-sworn ful depe, and ech of us til other,
That never, for to dyen in the peyne,
Til that the deeth departe shal us tweyne,
 1135Neither of us in love to hindren other,
Ne in non other cas, my leve brother;
But that thou sholdest trewely forthren me
 (280)In every cas, and I shal forthren thee.
This was thyn ooth, and myn also, certeyn;
 1140I wot right wel, thou darst it nat withseyn.
Thus artow of my counseil, out of doute.
And now thou woldest falsly been aboute
To love my lady, whom I love and serve,

And ever shal, til that myn herte sterve.
 1145Now certes, fals Arcite, thou shalt nat so.
I loved hir first, and tolde thee my wo
As to my counseil, and my brother sworn
 (290)To forthre me, as I have told biforn.
For which thou art y-bounden as a knight
 1150To helpen me, if it lay in thy might,
Or elles artow fals, I dar wel seyn.’


This Arcitë ful proudly spak ageyn,
‘Thou shalt,’ quod he, ‘be rather fals than I;
But thou art fals, I telle thee utterly;
 1155For par amour I loved hir first er thow.
What wiltow seyn? thou wistest nat yet now
Whether she be a womman or goddesse!

 (300)Thyn is affeccioun of holinesse,
And myn is love, as to a creature;
 1160For which I tolde thee myn aventure
As to my cosin, and my brother sworn.
I pose, that thou lovedest hir biforn;
Wostow nat wel the olde clerkes sawe,
That “who shal yeve a lover any lawe?”
 1165Love is a gretter lawe, by my pan,
Than may be yeve to any erthly man.
And therefore positif lawe and swich decree
 (310)Is broke al-day for love, in ech degree.
A man moot nedes love, maugree his heed.
 1170He may nat fleen it, thogh he sholde be deed,
Al be she mayde, or widwe, or elles wyf.
And eek it is nat lykly, al thy lyf,
To stonden in hir grace; namore shal I;

For wel thou woost thy-selven, verraily,
 1175That thou and I be dampned to prisoun
Perpetuelly; us gayneth no raunsoun.
We stryve as dide the houndes for the boon,
 (320)They foughte al day, and yet hir part was noon;
Ther cam a kyte, whyl that they were wrothe,
 1180And bar awey the boon bitwixe hem bothe.
And therfore, at the kinges court, my brother,
Ech man for him-self, ther is non other.
Love if thee list; for I love and ay shal;
And soothly, leve brother, this is al.
 1185Here in this prisoun mote we endure,
And everich of us take his aventure.’


Greet was the stryf and long bitwixe hem tweye,
 (330)If that I hadde leyser for to seye;
But to theffect. It happed on a day,
 1190(To telle it yow as shortly as I may)
A worthy duk that highte Perotheus,
That felawe was un-to duk Theseus

Sin thilke day that they were children lyte,
Was come to Athenes, his felawe to visyte,
 1195And for to pleye, as he was wont to do,
For in this world he loved no man so:
And he loved him as tendrely ageyn.
 (340)So wel they loved, as olde bokes seyn,
That whan that oon was deed, sothly to telle,
 1200His felawe wente and soghte him doun in helle;
But of that story list me nat to wryte.
Duk Perotheus loved wel Arcite,
And hadde him knowe at Thebes yeer by yere;
And fynally, at requeste and preyere
 1205Of Perotheus, with-oute any raunsoun,
Duk Theseus him leet out of prisoun,

Freely to goon, wher that him liste over-al,
 (350)In swich a gyse, as I you tellen shal.


Ther was a duk that highte Theseus

A worthy duk that highte Perotheus

This was the forward, pleynly for tendyte,
 1210Bitwixen Theseus and him Arcite:
That if so were, that Arcite were y-founde
Ever in his lyf, by day or night or stounde
In any contree of this Theseus,
And he were caught, it was acorded thus,
 1215That with a swerd he sholde lese his heed;
Ther nas non other remedye ne reed,
But taketh his leve, and homward he him spedde;
 (360)Let him be war, his nekke lyth to wedde!


How greet a sorwe suffreth now Arcite!
 1220The deeth he feleth thurgh his herte smyte;
He wepeth, wayleth, cryeth pitously;
To sleen him-self he wayteth prively.
He seyde, ‘Allas that day that I was born!
Now is my prison worse than biforn;
 1225Now is me shape eternally to dwelle
Noght in purgatorie, but in helle.

Allas! that ever knew I Perotheus!
 (370)For elles hadde I dwelled with Theseus
Y-fetered in his prisoun ever-mo.
 1230Than hadde I been in blisse, and nat in wo.
Only the sighte of hir, whom that I serve,
Though that I never hir grace may deserve,
Wolde han suffised right y-nough for me.
O dere cosin Palamon,’ quod he,
 1235Thyn is the victorie of this aventure,
Ful blisfully in prison maistow dure;
In prison? certes nay, but in paradys!
 (380)Wel hath fortune y-turned thee the dys,
That hast the sighte of hir, and I thabsence.
 1240For possible is,
sin thou hast hir presence,
And art a knight, a worthy and an able,
That by som cas, sin fortune is chaungeable,
Thou mayst to thy desyr som-tyme atteyne.

But I, that am exyled, and bareyne
 1245Of alle grace, and in so greet despeir,
That ther nis erthe, water, fyr, ne eir,
Ne creature, that of hem maked is,
 (390)That may me helpe or doon confort in this.
Wel oughte I sterve in wanhope and distresse;
 1250Farwel my lyf, my lust, and my gladnesse!’

If Theseus can withdraw a sentence of life without parole, he may also rescind Arcite’s exile.

Allas, why pleynen folk so in commune
Of purveyaunce of God, or of fortune,
That yeveth hem ful ofte in many a gyse
Wel bettre than they can hem-self devyse?

 1255Som man desyreth for to han richesse,
That cause is of his mordre or greet siknesse.
And som man wolde out of his prison fayn,
 (400)That in his hous is of his meynee slayn.
Infinite harmes been in this matere;
 1260We witen nat what thing we preyen here.
We faren as he that dronke is as a mous;
A dronke man wot wel he hath an hous,
But he noot which the righte wey is thider;
And to a dronke man the wey is slider.
 1265And certes, in this world so faren we;
We seken faste after felicitee,
But we goon wrong ful often, trewely.
 (410)Thus may we seyen alle, and namely I,
That wende and hadde a greet opinioun,
 1270That, if I mighte escapen from prisoun,
Than hadde I been in Ioye and perfit hele,
Ther now I am exyled fro my wele.
Sin that I may nat seen yow, Emelye,
I nam but deed; ther nis no remedye.’

In the OED the word “meynee” is under “meinie,” which is obsolete, but cognate with “mansion.”

 1275Up-on that other syde Palamon,
Whan that he wiste Arcite was agon,

Swich sorwe he maketh, that the grete tour
 (420)Resouneth of his youling and clamour.
The pure fettres on his shines grete
 1280Weren of his bittre salte teres wete.
‘Allas!’ quod he, ‘Arcita, cosin myn,
Of al our stryf, God woot, the fruyt is thyn.

Thow walkest now in Thebes at thy large,
And of my wo thou yevest litel charge.
 1285Thou mayst, sin thou hast wisdom and manhede,
Assemblen alle the folk of our kinrede,
And make a werre so sharp on this citee,
 (430)That by som aventure, or som tretee,
Thou mayst have hir to lady and to wyf,
 1290For whom that I mot nedes lese my lyf.
For, as by wey of possibilitee,
Sith thou art at thy large, of prison free,
And art a lord, greet is thyn avauntage,
More than is myn, that sterve here in a cage.
 1295For I mot wepe and wayle, whyl I live,
With al the wo that prison may me yive,
And eek with peyne that love me yiveth also,
 (440)That doubleth al my torment and my wo.’
Ther-with the fyr of Ielousye up-sterte
 1300With-inne his brest, and hente him by the herte
So woodly, that he lyk was to biholde
The box-tree, or the asshen dede and colde.
Tho seyde he; ‘O cruel goddes, that governe
This world with binding of your word eterne,
 1305And wryten in the table of athamaunt
Your parlement, and your eterne graunt,
What is mankinde more un-to yow holde
 (450)Than is the sheep, that rouketh in the folde?
For slayn is man right as another beste,
 1310And dwelleth eek in prison and areste,
And hath siknesse, and greet adversitee,
And ofte tymes giltelees, pardee!’


What governaunce is in this prescience,
That giltelees tormenteth innocence?

 1315And yet encreseth this al my penaunce,
That man is bounden to his observaunce,
For Goddes sake, to letten of his wille,

 (460)Ther as a beest may al his lust fulfille.
And whan a beest is deed, he hath no peyne;
 1320But man after his deeth moot wepe and pleyne,

Though in this world he have care and wo:
With-outen doute it may stonden so.
The answere of this I lete to divynis,
But wel I woot, that in this world gret pyne is.
 1325Allas! I see a serpent or a theef,
That many a trewe man hath doon mescheef,
Goon at his large, and wher him list may turne.

 (470)But I mot been in prison thurgh Saturne,
And eek thurgh Iuno, Ialous and eek wood,
 1330That hath destroyed wel ny al the blood
Of Thebes, with his waste walles wyde.
And Venus sleeth me on that other syde
For Ielousye, and fere of him Arcite.’

It doesn’t matter whether there is an afterlife; we can conceive of it, or of some kind of punishment for a misdirected will. At the same time, we see others going unpunished, while we, though righteous, suffer.

Now wol I stinte of Palamon a lyte,
 1335And lete him in his prison stille dwelle,
And of Arcita forth I wol yow telle.

These transitional verses point ahead to the second part.

The somer passeth, and the nightes longe
 (480)Encresen double wyse the peynes stronge
Bothe of the lovere and the prisoner.
 1340I noot which hath the wofullere mester.
For shortly for to seyn, this Palamoun
Perpetuelly is dampned to prisoun,
In cheynes and in fettres to ben deed;
And Arcite is exyled upon his heed
 1345For ever-mo as out of that contree,
Ne never-mo he shal his lady see.


Yow loveres axe I now this questioun,
 (490)Who hath the worse, Arcite or Palamoun?
That oon may seen his lady day by day,
 1350But in prison he moot dwelle alway.
That other wher him list may ryde or go,
But seen his lady shal he never-mo.
Now demeth as yow liste, ye that can,
For I wol telle forth as I bigan.

Explicit prima Pars. Sequitur pars secunda.

 1355Whan that Arcite to Thebes comen was,
Ful ofte a day he swelte and seyde ‘allas,’
For seen his lady shal he never-mo.
 (500)And shortly to concluden al his wo,
So muche sorwe had never creature
 1360That is, or shal, whyl that the world may dure.
His sleep, his mete, his drink is him biraft,
That lene he wex, and drye as is a shaft.
His eyen holwe, and grisly to biholde;
His hewe falwe, and pale as asshen colde,
 1365And solitarie he was, and ever allone,
And wailling al the night, making his mone.
And if he herde song or instrument,
 (510)Then wolde he wepe, he mighte nat be stent;
So feble eek were his spirits, and so lowe,
 1370And chaunged so, that no man coude knowe
His speche nor his vois, though men it herde.
And in his gere, for al the world he ferde
Nat oonly lyk the loveres maladye
Of Hereos, but rather lyk manye
 1375Engendred of humour malencolyk,

Biforen, in his celle fantastyk.
And shortly, turned was al up-so-doun
 (520)Bothe habit and eek disposicioun
Of him, this woful lovere daun Arcite.

Citing the Middle English Dictionary, Wiktionary gives the etymology of “hereos”:

From Medieval Latin, a blend of hērōs (“demigod; hero”), herus (“master of the house”) and Ancient Greek ἔρως (érōs, “love”).

 1380What sholde I al-day of his wo endyte?
Whan he endured hadde a yeer or two
This cruel torment, and this peyne and wo,
At Thebes, in his contree, as I seyde,
Up-on a night, in sleep as he him leyde,
 1385Him thoughte how that the winged god Mercurie
Biforn him stood,
and bad him to be murye.
His slepy yerde in hond he bar uprighte;
 (530)An hat he werede up-on his heres brighte.
Arrayed was this god (as he took keep)
 1390As he was whan that Argus took his sleep;
And seyde him thus: ‘To Athenes shaltou wende;
Ther is thee shapen of thy wo an ende.’
And with that word Arcite wook and sterte.
‘Now trewely, how sore that me smerte,’
 1395Quod he, ‘to Athenes right now wol I fare;
Ne for the drede of deeth shal I nat spare
To see my lady, that I love and serve;
 (540)In hir presence I recche nat to sterve.’


And with that word he caughte a greet mirour,
 1400And saugh that chaunged was al his colour,
And saugh his visage al in another kinde.
And right anoon it ran him in his minde,
That, sith his face was so disfigured
Of maladye, the which he hadde endured,
 1405He mighte wel, if that he bar him lowe,
Live in Athenes ever-more unknowe,
And seen his lady wel ny day by day.

 (550)And right anon he chaunged his array,
And cladde him as a povre laborer,
 1410And al allone, save oonly a squyer,
That knew his privetee and al his cas,
Which was disgysed povrely, as he was,
To Athenes is he goon the nexte way.
And to the court he wente up-on a day,
 1415And at the gate he profreth his servyse,
To drugge and drawe, what so men wol devyse.
And shortly of this matere for to seyn,
 (560)He fil in office with a chamberleyn,
The which that dwelling was with Emelye.

 1420For he was wys, and coude soon aspye
Of every servaunt, which that serveth here.
Wel coude he hewen wode, and water bere,
For he was yong and mighty for the nones,
And ther-to he was strong and big of bones
 1425To doon that any wight can him devyse.
A yeer or two he was in this servyse,
Page of the chambre of Emelye the brighte;
 (570)And ‘Philostrate’ he seide that he highte.
But half so wel biloved a man as he
 1430Ne was ther never in court,
of his degree;
He was so gentil of condicioun,
That thurghout al the court was his renoun.
They seyden, that it were a charitee
That Theseus wolde enhauncen his degree,
 1435And putten him in worshipful servyse,
Ther as he mighte his vertu excercyse.
And thus, with-inne a whyle, his name is spronge
 (580)Bothe of his dedes, and his goode tonge,
That Theseus hath taken him so neer
 1440That of his chambre he made him a squyer,
And yaf him gold to mayntene his degree;
And eek men broghte him out of his contree
From yeer to yeer, ful prively, his rente;

But honestly and slyly he it spente,
 1445That no man wondred how that he it hadde.
And three yeer in this wyse his lyf he ladde,
And bar him so in pees and eek in werre,
 (590)Ther nas no man that Theseus hath derre.
And in this blisse lete I now Arcite,
 1450And speke I wol of Palamon a lyte.

Arcite is taking rents from Thebes?

“Derre” is the comparative of “dere,” dear.

In derknesse and horrible and strong prisoun
This seven yeer hath seten Palamoun,
Forpyned, what for wo and for distresse;
Who feleth double soor and hevinesse
 1455But Palamon? that love destreyneth so,
That wood out of his wit he gooth for wo;
And eek therto he is a prisoner
 (600)Perpetuelly, noght oonly for a yeer.
Who coude ryme in English proprely
 1460His martirdom?
for sothe, it am nat I;
Therefore I passe as lightly as I may.


It fel that in the seventhe yeer, in May,
The thridde night,
(as olde bokes seyn,
That al this storie tellen more pleyn,)
 1465Were it by aventure or destinee,
(As, whan a thing is shapen, it shal be,)
That, sone after the midnight, Palamoun,
 (610)By helping of a freend, brak his prisoun,

And fleeth the citee, faste as he may go;
 1470For he had yive his gayler drinke so
Of a clarree, maad of a certeyn wyn,
With nercotikes and opie of Thebes fyn,
That al that night, thogh that men wolde him shake,
The gayler sleep, he mighte nat awake;
 1475And thus he fleeth as faste as ever he may.
The night was short, and faste by the day,
That nedes-cost he moste him-selven hyde,
 (620)And til a grove, faste ther besyde,
With dredful foot than stalketh Palamoun.
 1480For shortly, this was his opinioun,
That in that grove he wolde him hyde al day,
And in the night than wolde he take his way
To Thebes-ward, his freendes for to preye
On Theseus to helpe him to werreye;
 1485And shortly, outher he wolde lese his lyf,
Or winnen Emelye un-to his wyf;

This is theffect and his entente pleyn.


 (630)Now wol I torne un-to Arcite ageyn,
That litel wiste how ny that was his care,
 1490Til that fortune had broght him in the snare.


The bisy larke, messager of day,
Saluëth in hir song the morwe gray;
And fyry Phebus ryseth up so brighte,
That al the orient laugheth of the lighte,
 1495And with his stremes dryeth in the greves
The silver dropes, hanging on the leves.
And Arcite, that is in the court royal
 (640)With Theseus, his squyer principal,
Is risen, and loketh on the myrie day.
 1500And, for to doon his observaunce to May,
Remembering on the poynt of his desyr,
He on a courser, sterting as the fyr,
Is riden in-to the feeldes, him to pleye,
Out of the court, were it a myle or tweye;
 1505And to the grove, of which that I yow tolde,
By aventure, his wey he gan to holde,

To maken him a gerland of the greves,
 (650)Were it of wodebinde or hawethorn-leves,
And loude he song ageyn the sonne shene:
 1510‘May, with alle thy floures and thy grene,
Wel-come be thou, faire fresshe May,
I hope that I som grene gete may.’
And from his courser, with a lusty herte,
In-to the grove ful hastily he sterte,
 1515And in a path he rometh up and doun,
Ther-as, by aventure, this Palamoun
Was in a bush, that no man mighte him see,

 (660)For sore afered of his deeth was he.
No-thing ne knew he that it was Arcite:
 1520God wot he wolde have trowed it ful lyte.
But sooth is seyd, gon sithen many yeres,
That ‘feeld hath eyen, and the wode hath eres.’
It is ful fair a man to bere him evene,
For al-day meteth men at unset stevene.
 1525Ful litel woot Arcite of his felawe,
That was so ny to herknen al his sawe,
For in the bush he sitteth now ful stille.

The proverb in Latin is Campus habet lumen, et habet nemus auris acumen.

Robinson says (with citations) that it is also a proverb that men meet all day at unplanned times. “Steven” (obsolete or dialectical in the OED) is a command or a time.

 (670)Whan that Arcite had romed al his fille,
And songen al the roundel lustily,
 1530In-to a studie he fil sodeynly,
As doon thise loveres in hir queynte geres,
Now in the croppe, now doun in the breres,
Now up, now doun, as boket in a welle.
Right as the Friday, soothly for to telle,
 1535Now it shyneth, now it reyneth faste,
Right so can gery Venus overcaste
The hertes of hir folk;
right as hir day
 (680)Is gerful, right so chaungeth she array.
Selde is the Friday al the wyke y-lyke.

An obsolete word of obscure origin, “gere” refers to a sudden fit of passion, according to the OED, where the sentence above is the first illustration of the adjective “gery.” Friday is Frig’s day, Vendredi, the day of Venus.

 1540Whan that Arcite had songe, he gan to syke,
And sette him doun with-outen any more:
‘Alas!’ quod he, ‘that day that I was bore!
How longe, Iuno, thurgh thy crueltee,
Woltow werreyen Thebes the citee?
 1545Allas! y-broght is to confusioun
The blood royal of Cadme and Amphioun;
Of Cadmus, which that was the firste man
 (690)That Thebes bulte, or first the toun bigan,
And of the citee first was crouned king,
 1550Of his linage am I, and his of-spring
By verray ligne, as of the stok royal:
And now I am so caitif and so thral,
That he, that is my mortal enemy,
I serve him as his squyer povrely.

 1555And yet doth Iuno me wel more shame,
For I dar noght biknowe myn owne name;
But ther-as I was wont to highte Arcite,
 (700)Now highte I Philostrate, noght worth a myte.
Allas! thou felle Mars, allas! Iuno,
 1560Thus hath your ire our kinrede al fordo,
Save only me, and wrecched Palamoun,
That Theseus martyreth in prisoun.
And over al this, to sleen me utterly,
Love hath his fyry dart so brenningly
 1565Y-stiked thurgh my trewe careful herte,
That shapen was my deeth erst than my sherte.
Ye sleen me with your eyen, Emelye;
 (710)Ye been the cause wherfor that I dye.
Of al the remenant of myn other care
 1570Ne sette I nat the mountaunce of a tare,
So that I coude don aught to your plesaunce!’
And with that word he fil doun in a traunce
A longe tyme; and after he up-sterte.


This Palamoun, that thoughte that thurgh his herte
 1575He felte a cold swerd sodeynliche glyde,
For ire he quook, no lenger wolde he byde.
And whan that he had herd Arcites tale,
 (720)As he were wood, with face deed and pale,
He sterte him up out of the buskes thikke,
 1580And seyde: ‘Arcite, false traitour wikke,
Now artow hent, that lovest my lady so,
For whom that I have al this peyne and wo,
And art my blood, and to my counseil sworn,
As I ful ofte have told thee heer-biforn,
 1585And hast by-iaped here duk Theseus,
And falsly chaunged hast thy name thus;
I wol be deed, or elles thou shalt dye.
 (730)Thou shalt nat love my lady Emelye,
But I wol love hir only, and namo;
 1590For I am Palamoun, thy mortal fo.
And though that I no wepne have in this place,
But out of prison am astert by grace,
I drede noght that outher thou shalt dye,
Or thou ne shalt nat loven Emelye.
 1595Chees which thou wilt, for thou shalt nat asterte.’


This Arcite, with ful despitous herte,
Whan he him knew, and hadde his tale herd,
 (740)As fiers as leoun, pulled out a swerd,
And seyde thus: ‘by God that sit above,
 1600Nere it that thou art sik, and wood for love,
And eek that thou no wepne hast in this place,
Thou sholdest never out of this grove pace,
That thou ne sholdest dyen of myn hond.
For I defye the seurtee and the bond
 1605Which that thou seyst that I have maad to thee.
What, verray fool, think wel that love is free,
And I wol love hir, maugre al thy might!
 (750)But, for as muche thou art a worthy knight,
And wilnest to darreyne hir by batayle,
 1610Have heer my trouthe, to-morwe I wol nat fayle,
With-outen witing of any other wight,
That here I wol be founden as a knight,
And bringen harneys right y-nough for thee;
And chees the beste, and leve the worste for me.
 1615And mete and drinke this night wol I bringe
Y-nough for thee, and clothes for thy beddinge.
And, if so be that thou my lady winne,
 (760)And slee me in this wode ther I am inne,
Thou mayst wel have thy lady,
as for me.’
 1620This Palamon answerde: ‘I graunte it thee.’
And thus they been departed til a-morwe,
When ech of hem had leyd his feith to borwe.


O Cupide, out of alle charitee!
O regne, that wolt no felawe have with thee!
 1625Ful sooth is seyd, that love ne lordshipe
Wol noght, his thankes, have no felaweshipe;
Wel finden that Arcite and Palamoun.
 (770)Arcite is riden anon un-to the toun,
And on the morwe, er it were dayes light,
 1630Ful prively two harneys hath he dight,
Bothe suffisaunt and mete to darreyne
The bataille in the feeld bitwix hem tweyne.
And on his hors, allone as he was born,
He carieth al this harneys him biforn;
 1635And in the grove, at tyme and place y-set,
This Arcite and this Palamon ben met.
Tho chaungen gan the colour in hir face;
 (780)Right as the hunter in the regne of Trace,
That stondeth at the gappe with a spere,
 1640Whan hunted is the leoun or the bere,
And hereth him come russhing in the greves,
And breketh bothe bowes and the leves,
And thinketh, ‘heer cometh my mortel enemy,
With-oute faile, he moot be deed, or I;
 1645For outher I mot sleen him at the gappe,
Or he mot sleen me, if that me mishappe:’
So ferden they, in chaunging of hir hewe,
 (790)As fer as everich of hem other knewe.
Ther nas no good day, ne no saluing;
 1650But streight, with-outen word or rehersing,
Everich of hem halp for to armen other,
As freendly as he were his owne brother;
And after that, with sharpe speres stronge
They foynen ech at other wonder longe.
 1655Thou mightest wene that this Palamoun
In his fighting were a wood leoun,
And as a cruel tygre was Arcite:
 (800)As wilde bores gonne they to smyte,
That frothen whyte as foom for ire wood.
 1660Up to the ancle foghte they in hir blood.
And in this wyse I lete hem fighting dwelle;
And forth I wol of Theseus yow telle.

A Homeric simile and a cliffhanger.

The destinee, ministre general,
That executeth in the world over-al
 1665The purveyaunce, that God hath seyn biforn,
So strong it is, that, though the world had sworn
The contrarie of a thing, by ye or nay,
 (810)Yet somtyme it shal fallen on a day
That falleth nat eft with-inne a thousand yere.

 1670For certeinly, our appetytes here,
Be it of werre, or pees, or hate, or love,
Al is this reuled by the sighte above.
This mene I now by mighty Theseus,
That for to honten is so desirous,

 1675And namely at the grete hert in May,
That in his bed ther daweth him no day,
That he nis clad, and redy for to ryde
 (820)With hunte and horn, and houndes him bisyde.
For in his hunting hath he swich delyt,
 1680That it is al his Ioye and appetyt
To been him-self the grete hertes bane;
For after Mars he serveth now Diane.

“Eft” is after, the comparative of “aft.”

Cleer was the day, as I have told er this,
And Theseus, with alle Ioye and blis,
 1685With his Ipolita, the fayre quene,
And Emelye,
clothed al in grene,
On hunting be they riden royally.
 (830)And to the grove, that stood ful faste by,
In which ther was an hert, as men him tolde,
 1690Duk Theseus the streighte wey hath holde.
And to the launde he rydeth him ful right,
For thider was the hert wont have his flight,
And over a brook, and so forth on his weye.
This duk wol han a cours at him, or tweye,
 1695With houndes, swiche as that him list comaunde.


And whan this duk was come un-to the launde,
Under the sonne he loketh, and anon
 (840)He was war of Arcite and Palamon,
That foughten breme, as it were bores two;
 1700The brighte swerdes wenten to and fro
So hidously, that with the leeste strook
It seemed as it wolde felle an ook;
But what they were, no-thing he ne woot.
This duk his courser with his spores smoot,
 1705And at a stert he was bitwix hem two,
And pulled out a swerd and cryed, ‘ho!
Namore, up peyne of lesing of your heed.
 (850)By mighty Mars, he shal anon be deed,
That smyteth any strook, that I may seen!
 1710But telleth me what mister men ye been,
That been so hardy for to fighten here
With-outen Iuge or other officere,
As it were in a listes royally?’

Is Chaucer really using “telleth” as a second-person imperative? “Mister” is not the honorific derived from “master,” but is cognate with the French métier from vulgar Latin *misterium, classical Latin ministerium, from minister.

This Palamon answerde hastily,
 1715And seyde: ‘sire, what nedeth wordes mo?
We have the deeth deserved bothe two.
Two woful wrecches been we, two caytyves,
 (860)That been encombred of our owne lyves;
And as thou art a rightful lord and Iuge,
 1720Ne yeve us neither mercy ne refuge,
But slee me first, for seynte charitee;
But slee my felawe eek as wel as me.
Or slee him first; for, though thou knowe it lyte,
This is thy mortal fo, this is Arcite,
 1725That fro thy lond is banished on his heed,
For which he hath deserved to be deed.
For this is he that cam un-to thy gate,
 (870)And seyde, that he highte Philostrate.

Thus hath he Iaped thee ful many a yeer,
 1730And thou has maked him thy chief squyer;
And this is he that loveth Emelye.

For sith the day is come that I shal dye,
I make pleynly my confessioun,
That I am thilke woful Palamoun,
 1735That hath thy prison broken wikkedly.

I am thy mortal fo, and it am I
That loveth so hote Emelye the brighte,
 (880)That I wol dye present in hir sighte.

Therfore I axe deeth and my Iuwyse;
 1740But slee my felawe in the same wyse,
For bothe han we deserved to be slayn.’

Palamon reports what he heard Arcite say yesterday in the grove. Is it important that readers know how Palamon came by his knowledge?

This worthy duk answerde anon agayn,
And seyde, ‘This is a short conclusioun:
Youre owne mouth, by your confessioun,
 1745Hath dampned you, and I wol it recorde,
It nedeth noght to pyne yow with the corde.
Ye shul be deed, by mighty Mars the rede!


 (890)The quene anon, for verray wommanhede,
Gan for to wepe, and so dide Emelye,
 1750And alle the ladies in the companye.

Gret pitee was it, as it thoughte hem alle,
That ever swich a chaunce sholde falle;
For gentil men they were, of greet estat,
And no-thing but for love was this debat;

 1755And sawe hir blody woundes wyde and sore;
And alle cryden, bothe lasse and more,
‘Have mercy, lord, up-on us wommen alle!’
 (900)And on hir bare knees adoun they falle,
And wolde have kist his feet ther-as he stood,
 1760Til at the laste aslaked was his mood;
For pitee renneth sone in gentil herte.
And though he first for ire quook and sterte,
He hath considered shortly, in a clause,
The trespas of hem bothe, and eek the cause:
 1765And al-though that his ire hir gilt accused,
Yet in his reson he hem bothe excused;

As thus: he thoghte wel, that every man
 (910)Wol helpe him-self in love, if that he can,
And eek delivere him-self out of prisoun;
 1770And eek his herte had compassioun
Of wommen, for they wepen ever in oon;
And in his gentil herte he thoghte anoon,
And softe un-to himself he seyde:fy
Up-on a lord that wol have no mercy,

 1775But been a leoun, bothe in word and dede,
To hem that been in repentaunce and drede
As wel as to a proud despitous man

 (920)That wol maynteyne that he first bigan!
That lord hath litel of discrecioun,
 1780That in swich cas can no divisioun,
But weyeth pryde and humblesse after oon.’
And shortly, whan his ire is thus agoon,
He gan to loken up with eyen lighte,
And spak thise same wordes al on highte:
 1785The god of love, a! benedicite,
How mighty and how greet a lord is he!
Ayeins his might ther gayneth none obstacles,
 (930)He may be cleped a god for his miracles;
For he can maken at his owne gyse
 1790Of everich herte, as that him list devyse.
Lo heer, this Arcite and this Palamoun,
That quitly weren out of my prisoun,
And mighte han lived in Thebes royally,
And witen I am hir mortal enemy,
 1795And that hir deeth lyth in my might also,
And yet hath love, maugree hir eyen two,
Y-broght hem hider bothe for to dye!
 (940)Now loketh, is nat that an heigh folye?
Who may been a fool, but-if he love?
 1800Bihold, for Goddes sake that sit above,
Se how they blede! be they noght wel arrayed?
Thus hath hir lord, the god of love, y-payed
Hir wages and hir fees for hir servyse!
And yet they wenen for to been ful wyse
 1805That serven love, for aught that may bifalle!

But this is yet the beste game of alle,
That she, for whom they han this Iolitee,
 (950)Can hem ther-for as muche thank as me;

She woot namore of al this hote fare,
 1810By God, than woot a cokkow or an hare!
But al mot been assayed, hoot and cold;
A man mot been a fool, or yong or old;
I woot it by my-self ful yore agoon:
For in my tyme a servant was I oon.
 1815And therfore, sin I knowe of loves peyne,
And woot how sore it can a man distreyne,
As he that hath ben caught ofte in his las,
 (960)I yow foryeve al hoolly this trespas,
At requeste of the quene that kneleth here,
 1820And eek of Emelye, my suster dere.
And ye shul bothe anon un-to me swere,
That never-mo ye shul my contree dere,
Ne make werre up-on me night ne day,
But been my freendes in al that ye may;
 1825I yow foryeve this trespas every del.’
 1825And they him swore his axing fayre and wel,
And him of lordshipe and of mercy preyde,
 (970)And he hem graunteth grace, and thus he seyde:


‘To speke of royal linage and richesse,
 1830Though that she were a quene or a princesse,
Ech of yow bothe is worthy, doutelees,
To wedden whan tyme is, but nathelees
I speke as for my suster Emelye,
For whom ye have this stryf and Ielousye;
 1835Ye woot your-self, she may not wedden two
At ones, though ye fighten ever-mo:
That oon of yow, al be him looth or leef,
 (980)He moot go pypen in an ivy-leef;
This is to seyn, she may nat now han bothe,
 1840Al be ye never so Ielous, ne so wrothe.
And for-thy I yow putte in this degree,
That ech of yow shal have his destinee
As him is shape; and herkneth in what wyse;
Lo, heer your ende of that I shal devyse.’


 1845‘My wil is this, for plat conclusioun,
With-outen any replicacioun,
If that yow lyketh, tak it for the beste,
 (990)That everich of yow shal gon wher him leste
Frely, with-outen raunson or daunger;
 1850And this day fifty wykes, fer ne ner,
Everich of yow shal bringe an hundred knightes,
Armed for listes up at alle rightes,
Al redy to darreyne hir by bataille.
And this bihote I yow, with-outen faille,
 1855Up-on my trouthe, and as I am a knight,
That whether of yow bothe that hath might,
This is to seyn, that whether he or thou
 (1000)May with his hundred, as I spak of now,
Sleen his contrarie, or out of listes dryve,
 1860Him shal I yeve Emelya to wyve,
To whom that fortune yeveth so fair a grace.
The listes shal I maken in this place,
And God so wisly on my soule rewe,
As I shal even Iuge been and trewe.
 1865Ye shul non other ende with me maken,
That oon of yow ne shal be deed or taken.
And if yow thinketh this is wel y-sayd,
 (1010)Seyeth your avys, and holdeth yow apayd.
This is your ende and your conclusioun.’


 1870Who loketh lightly now but Palamoun?
Who springeth up for Ioye but Arcite?
Who couthe telle, or who couthe it endyte,
The Ioye that is maked in the place
Whan Theseus hath doon so fair a grace?

 1875But doun on knees wente every maner wight,
And thanked him with al her herte and might,
And namely the Thebans ofte sythe.
 (1020)And thus with good hope and with herte blythe
They take hir leve, and hom-ward gonne they ryde
 1880To Thebes, with his olde walles wyde.

Explicit secunda pars. Sequitur pars tercia.

I trowe men wolde deme it necligence,
If I foryete to tellen the dispence
Of Theseus, that goth so bisily
To maken up the listes royally;

 1885That swich a noble theatre as it was,
I dar wel seyn that in this world ther nas.
The circuit a myle was aboute,
 (1030)Walled of stoon, and diched al with-oute.
Round was the shap, in maner of compas,
 1890Ful of degrees, the heighte of sixty pas,
That, whan a man was set on o degree,
He letted nat his felawe for to see.


Est-ward ther stood a gate of marbel whyt,
West-ward, right swich another in the opposit.
 1895And shortly to concluden, swich a place
Was noon in erthe, as in so litel space;
For in the lond ther nas no crafty man,
 (1040)That geometrie or ars-metrik can,
Ne purtreyour, ne kerver of images,
 1900That Theseus ne yaf him mete and wages
The theatre for to maken and devyse.
And for to doon his ryte and sacrifyse,
He est-ward hath, up-on the gate above,
In worship of Venus, goddesse of love,
 1905Don make an auter and an oratorie;
And west-ward, in the minde and in memorie
Of Mars,
he maked hath right swich another,
 (1050)That coste largely of gold a fother.
And north-ward, in a touret on the wal,
 1910Of alabastre whyt and reed coral
An oratorie riche for to see,
In worship of Dyane of chastitee,
Hath Theseus don wroght in noble wyse.


But yet hadde I foryeten to devyse
 1915The noble kerving, and the portreitures,
The shap, the countenaunce, and the figures,
That weren in thise oratories three.


 (1060)First in the temple of Venus maystow see
Wroght on the wal, ful pitous to biholde,
 1920The broken slepes, and the sykes colde;
The sacred teres, and the waymenting;
The fyry strokes of the desiring,
That loves servaunts in this lyf enduren;
The othes, that hir covenants assuren;
 1925Plesaunce and hope, desyr, fool-hardinesse,
Beautee and youthe, bauderie, richesse,
Charmes and force, lesinges, flaterye,
 (1070)Dispense, bisynesse, and Ielousye,
That wered of yelwe goldes a gerland,
 1930And a cokkow sitting on hir hand;
Festes, instruments, caroles, daunces,
Lust and array, and alle the circumstaunces
Of love, whiche that I rekne and rekne shal,
By ordre weren peynted on the wal,
 1935And mo than I can make of mencioun.
For soothly, al the mount of Citheroun,
Ther Venus hath hir principal dwelling,
 (1080)Was shewed on the wal in portreying,
With al the gardin, and the lustinesse.
 1940Nat was foryeten the porter Ydelnesse,
Ne Narcisus the faire of yore agon,
Ne yet the folye of king Salamon,
Ne yet the grete strengthe of Hercules—
Thenchauntements of Medea and Circes—
 1945Ne of Turnus, with the hardy fiers corage,
The riche Cresus, caytif in servage.
Thus may ye seen that wisdom ne richesse,
 (1090)Beautee ne sleighte, strengthe, ne hardinesse,
Ne may with Venus holde champartye;

 1950For as hir list the world than may she gye.
Lo, alle thise folk so caught were in hir las,
Til they for wo ful ofte seyde ‘allas!’
Suffyceth heer ensamples oon or two,
And though I coude rekne a thousand mo.

French has champart from champ and part.

 1955The statue of Venus, glorious for to see,
Was naked fleting in the large see,
And fro the navele doun all covered was
 (1100)With wawes grene, and brighte as any glas.
A citole in hir right hand hadde she,
 1960And on hir heed, ful semely for to see,
A rose gerland, fresh and wel smellinge;
Above hir heed hir dowves flikeringe.
Biforn hir stood hir sone Cupido,
Up-on his shuldres winges hadde he two;
 1965And blind he was, as it is ofte sene;
A bowe he bar and arwes brighte and kene.

“Citole,” “somewhat like a zither.”

Why sholde I noght as wel eek telle yow al
 (1110)The portreiture, that was up-on the wal
With-inne the temple of mighty Mars the rede?
 1970Al peynted was the wal, in lengthe and brede,
Lyk to the estres of the grisly place,
That highte the grete temple of Mars in Trace,
In thilke colde frosty regioun,
Ther-as Mars hath his sovereyn mansioun.

Estres, inward parts.

 1975First on the wal was peynted a foreste,
In which ther dwelleth neither man ne beste,
With knotty knarry bareyn treës olde
 (1120)Of stubbes sharpe and hidous to biholde;
In which ther ran a rumbel and a swough,
 1980As though a storm sholde bresten every bough:
And downward from an hille, under a bente,
Ther stood the temple of Mars armipotente,
Wroght al of burned steel, of which thentree
Was long and streit, and gastly for to see.
 1985And ther-out cam a rage and such a vese,
That it made al the gates for to rese.
The northren light in at the dores shoon,
 (1130)For windowe on the wal ne was ther noon,
Thurgh which men mighten any light discerne.
 1990The dores were alle of adamant eterne,
Y-clenched overthwart and endelong
With iren tough; and, for to make it strong,
Every piler, the temple to sustene,
Was tonne-greet, of iren bright and shene.


 1995Ther saugh I first the derke imagining
Of felonye,
and al the compassing;
The cruel ire, reed as any glede;
 (1140)The pykepurs, and eek the pale drede;
The smyler with the knyf under the cloke;
 2000The shepne brenning with the blake smoke;
The treson of the mordring in the bedde;
The open werre, with woundes al bi-bledde;
Contek, with blody knyf and sharp manace;
Al ful of chirking was that sory place.
 2005The sleere of him-self yet saugh I ther,
His herte-blood hath bathed al his heer;
The nayl y-driven in the shode a-night;
 (1150)The colde deeth, with mouth gaping up-right.
Amiddes of the temple sat meschaunce,
 2010With disconfort and sory contenaunce.
Yet saugh I woodnesse laughing in his rage;
Armed compleint, out-hees, and fiers outrage.
The careyne in the bush, with throte y-corve:
A thousand slayn, and nat of qualm y-storve;
 2015The tiraunt, with the prey by force y-raft;
The toun destroyed, ther was no-thing laft.
Yet saugh I brent the shippes hoppesteres;
 (1160)The hunte strangled with the wilde beres:
The sowe freten the child right in the cradel;
 2020The cook y-scalded, for al his longe ladel.
Noght was foryeten by the infortune of Marte;
The carter over-riden with his carte,
Under the wheel ful lowe he lay adoun.
Ther were also, of Martes divisioun,
 2025The barbour, and the bocher, and the smith

That forgeth sharpe swerdes on his stith.
And al above, depeynted in a tour,
 (1170)Saw I conquest sittinge in greet honour,
With the sharpe swerde over his heed
 2030Hanginge by a sotil twynes threed.
Depeynted was the slaughtre of Iulius,
Of grete Nero, and of Antonius;
Al be that thilke tyme they were unborn,
Yet was hir deeth depeynted ther-biforn,
 2035By manasinge of Mars, right by figure;
So was it shewed in that portreiture
As is depeynted in the sterres above,
 (1180)Who shal be slayn or elles deed for love.

Suffyceth oon ensample in stories olde,
 2040I may not rekne hem alle, thogh I wolde.

Wood = mad. Careyne = carrion. Hoppesteres = dancing-girls.

The statue of Mars up-on a carte stood,
Armed, and loked grim as he were wood;
And over his heed ther shynen two figures
Of sterres, that been cleped in scriptures,
 2045That oon Puella, that other Rubeus.
This god of armes was arrayed thus:—
A wolf ther stood biforn him at his feet
 (1190)With eyen rede, and of a man he eet;
With sotil pencel was depeynt this storie,
 2050In redoutinge of Mars and of his glorie.


Now to the temple of Diane the chaste
As shortly as I can I wol me haste,
To telle yow al the descripcioun.
Depeynted been the walles up and doun
 2055Of hunting and of shamfast chastitee.
Ther saugh I how woful Calistopee,
Whan that Diane agreved was with here,
 (1200)Was turned from a womman til a bere,
And after was she maad the lode-sterre;
 2060Thus was it peynt, I can say yow no ferre;
Hir sone is eek a sterre, as men may see.
Ther saugh I Dane, y-turned til a tree,
I mene nat the goddesse Diane,
But Penneus doughter, which that highte Dane.
 2065Ther saugh I Attheon an hert y-maked,
For vengeaunce that he saugh Diane al naked;
I saugh how that his houndes have him caught,
 (1210)And freten him, for that they knewe him naught.
Yet peynted was a litel forther-moor,
 2070How Atthalante hunted the wilde boor,
And Meleagre, and many another mo,
For which Diane wroghte him care and wo.
Ther saugh I many another wonder storie,
The whiche me list nat drawen to memorie.
 2075This goddesse on an hert ful hye seet,
With smale houndes al aboute hir feet;
And undernethe hir feet she hadde a mone,
 (1220)Wexing it was, and sholde wanie sone.
In gaude grene hir statue clothed was,
 2080With bowe in honde, and arwes in a cas.
Hir eyen caste she ful lowe adoun,
Ther Pluto hath his derke regioun.
A womman travailinge was hir biforn,
But, for hir child so longe was unborn,
 2085Ful pitously Lucyna gan she calle,
And seyde, ‘help, for thou mayst best of alle.’
Wel couthe he peynten lyfly that it wroghte,
 (1230)With many a florin he the hewes boghte.


Now been thise listes maad, and Theseus,
 2090That at his grete cost arrayed thus
The temples and the theatre every del,
Whan it was doon, him lyked wonder wel.
But stinte I wol of Theseus a lyte,
And speke of Palamon and of Arcite.


 2095The day approcheth of hir retourninge,
That everich sholde an hundred knightes bringe,
The bataille to darreyne, as I yow tolde;
 (1240)And til Athenes, hir covenant for to holde,
Hath everich of hem broght an hundred knightes
 2100Wel armed for the werre at alle rightes.
And sikerly, ther trowed many a man
That never, sithen that the world bigan,
As for to speke of knighthod of hir hond,
As fer as God hath maked see or lond,
 2105Nas, of so fewe, so noble a companye.
For every wight that lovede chivalrye,
And wolde, his thankes, han a passant name,
 (1250)Hath preyed that he mighte ben of that game;
And wel was him, that ther-to chosen was.
 2110For if ther fille to-morwe swich a cas,
Ye knowen wel, that every lusty knight,
That loveth paramours, and hath his might,
Were it in Engelond, or elles-where,
They wolde, hir thankes, wilnen to be there.
 2115To fighte for a lady, benedicite!
It were a lusty sighte for to see.


And right so ferden they with Palamon.
 (1260)With him ther wenten knightes many oon;
Som wol ben armed in an habergeoun,
 2120In a brest-plat and in a light gipoun;
And somme woln have a peyre plates large;
And somme woln have a Pruce sheld, or a targe;
Somme woln ben armed on hir legges weel,
And have an ax, and somme a mace of steel.
 2125Ther nis no newe gyse, that it nas old.
Armed were they, as I have you told,
Everich after his opinioun.


 (1270)Ther maistow seen coming with Palamoun
Ligurge him-self, the grete king of Trace;

 2130Blak was his berd, and manly was his face.
The cercles of his eyen in his heed,
They gloweden bitwixe yelow and reed;
And lyk a griffon loked he aboute,
With kempe heres on his browes stoute;
 2135His limes grete, his braunes harde and stronge,
His shuldres brode, his armes rounde and longe.
And as the gyse was in his contree,
 (1280)Ful hye up-on a char of gold stood he,
With foure whyte boles in the trays.
 2140In-stede of cote-armure over his harnays,
With nayles yelwe and brighte as any gold,
He hadde a beres skin, col-blak, for-old.
His long heer was kembd bihinde his bak,
As any ravenes fether it shoon for-blak:
 2145A wrethe of gold arm-greet, of huge wighte,
Upon his heed, set ful of stones brighte,
Of fyne rubies and of dyamaunts.
 (1290)Aboute his char ther wenten whyte alaunts,
Twenty and mo, as grete as any steer,
 2150To hunten at the leoun or the deer,
And folwed him, with mosel faste y-bounde,
Colers of gold, and torets fyled rounde.
An hundred lordes hadde he in his route
Armed ful wel, with hertes sterne and stoute.


 2155With Arcita, in stories as men finde,
The grete Emetreus, the king of Inde,

Up-on a stede bay, trapped in steel,
 (1300)Covered in cloth of gold diapred weel,
Cam ryding lyk the god of armes, Mars.
 2160His cote-armure was of cloth of Tars,
Couched with perles whyte and rounde and grete.
His sadel was of brend gold newe y-bete;
A mantelet upon his shuldre hanginge
Bret-ful of rubies rede, as fyr sparklinge.
 2165His crispe heer lyk ringes was y-ronne,
And that was yelow, and glitered as the sonne.
His nose was heigh, his eyen bright citryn,
 (1310)His lippes rounde, his colour was sangwyn,
A fewe fraknes in his face y-spreynd,
 2170Betwixen yelow and somdel blak y-meynd,
And as a leoun he his loking caste.
Of fyve and twenty yeer his age I caste.
His berd was wel bigonne for to springe;
His voys was as a trompe thunderinge.
 2175Up-on his heed he wered of laurer grene
A gerland fresh and lusty for to sene.
Up-on his hand he bar, for his deduyt,
 (1320)An egle tame, as eny lilie whyt.
An hundred lordes hadde he with him there,
 2180Al armed, sauf hir heddes, in al hir gere,
Ful richely in alle maner thinges.
For trusteth wel, that dukes, erles, kinges,
Were gadered in this noble companye,
For love and for encrees of chivalrye.
 2185Aboute this king ther ran on every part
Ful many a tame leoun and lepart.
And in this wyse thise lordes, alle and some,
 (1330)Ben on the Sonday to the citee come
Aboute pryme, and in the toun alight.


 2190This Theseus, this duk, this worthy knight,
Whan he had broght hem in-to his citee,
And inned hem, everich in his degree,
He festeth hem, and dooth so greet labour
To esen hem, and doon hem al honour,
 2195That yet men weneth that no mannes wit
Of noon estat ne coude amenden it.
The minstralcye, the service at the feste,
 (1340)The grete yiftes to the moste and leste,
The riche array of Theseus paleys,
 2200Ne who sat first ne last up-on the deys,
What ladies fairest been or best daunsinge,
Or which of hem can dauncen best and singe,
Ne who most felingly speketh of love:
What haukes sitten on the perche above,
 2205What houndes liggen on the floor adoun:
Of al this make I now no mencioun;
But al theffect, that thinketh me the beste;
 (1350)Now comth the poynt, and herkneth if yow leste.


The Sonday night, er day bigan to springe,
 2210When Palamon the larke herde singe,
Although it nere nat day by houres two,
Yet song the larke, and Palamon also.
With holy herte, and with an heigh corage
He roos, to wenden on his pilgrimage
 2215Un-to the blisful Citherea benigne,

I mene Venus, honurable and digne.
And in hir houre he walketh forth a pas
 (1360)Un-to the listes, ther hir temple was,
And doun he kneleth, and with humble chere
 2220And herte soor, he seyde as ye shul here.


‘Faireste of faire, o lady myn, Venus,
Doughter to Iove and spouse of Vulcanus,
Thou glader of the mount of Citheroun,
For thilke love thou haddest to Adoun,
 2225Have pitee of my bittre teres smerte,
And tak myn humble preyer at thyn herte.
Allas! I ne have no langage to telle
 (1370)Theffectes ne the torments of myn helle;
Myn herte may myne harmes nat biwreye;
 2230I am so confus, that I can noght seye.
But mercy, lady bright, that knowest weel
My thought, and seest what harmes that I feel,
Considere al this, and rewe up-on my sore,
As wisly as I shal for evermore,
 2235Emforth my might, thy trewe servant be,
And holden werre alwey with chastitee;
That make I myn avow, so ye me helpe.
 (1380)I kepe noght of armes for to yelpe,
Ne I ne axe nat to-morwe to have victorie,
 2240Ne renoun in this cas, ne veyne glorie
Of pris of armes blowen up and doun,
But I wolde have fully possessioun
Of Emelye, and dye in thy servyse;

Find thou the maner how, and in what wyse.
 2245I recche nat, but it may bettre be,
To have victorie of hem, or they of me,
So that I have my lady in myne armes.
 (1390)For though so be that Mars is god of armes,
Your vertu is so greet in hevene above,
 2250That, if yow list, I shal wel have my love.
Thy temple wol I worshipe evermo,
And on thyn auter, wher I ryde or go,
I wol don sacrifice, and fyres bete.
And if ye wol nat so, my lady swete,
 2255Than preye I thee, to-morwe with a spere
That Arcita me thurgh the herte bere.

Thanne rekke I noght, whan I have lost my lyf,
 (1400)Though that Arcita winne hir to his wyf.
This is theffect and ende of my preyere,
 2260Yif me my love, thou blisful lady dere.’

Palamon prays Venus to cure the pains that she herself has given him.

Whan thorisoun was doon of Palamon,
His sacrifice he dide, and that anon
Ful pitously, with alle circumstaunces,
Al telle I noght as now his observaunces.
 2265But atte laste the statue of Venus shook,
And made a signe, wher-by that he took
That his preyere accepted was that day.

 (1410)For thogh the signe shewed a delay,
Yet wiste he wel that graunted was his bone;
 2270And with glad herte he wente him hoom ful sone.


The thridde houre inequal that Palamon
Bigan to Venus temple for to goon,
Up roos the sonne, and up roos Emelye,
And to the temple of Diane gan hye.

 2275Hir maydens, that she thider with hir ladde,
Ful redily with hem the fyr they hadde,
Thencens, the clothes, and the remenant al
 (1420)That to the sacrifyce longen shal;
The hornes fulle of meth, as was the gyse;
 2280Ther lakked noght to doon hir sacrifyse.
Smoking the temple, ful of clothes faire,
This Emelye, with herte debonaire,
Hir body wessh with water of a welle;
But how she dide hir ryte I dar nat telle,
 2285But it be any thing in general;
And yet it were a game to heren al;
To him that meneth wel, it were no charge:
 (1430)But it is good a man ben at his large.
Hir brighte heer was kempt, untressed al;
 2290A coroune of a grene ook cerial
Up-on hir heed was set ful fair and mete.
Two fyres on the auter gan she bete,
And dide hir thinges, as men may biholde
In Stace of Thebes, and thise bokes olde.
 2295Whan kindled was the fyr, with pitous chere
Un-to Diane she spak, as ye may here.


‘O chaste goddesse of the wodes grene,
 (1440)To whom bothe hevene and erthe and see is sene,
Quene of the regne of Pluto derk and lowe,
 2300Goddesse of maydens, that myn herte hast knowe
Ful many a yeer, and woost what I desire,
As keep me fro thy vengeaunce and thyn ire,
That Attheon aboughte cruelly.
Chaste goddesse, wel wostow that I
 2305Desire to been a mayden al my lyf,

Ne never wol I be no love ne wyf.
I am, thou woost, yet of thy companye,
 (1450)A mayde, and love hunting and venerye,
And for to walken in the wodes wilde,
 2310And noght to been a wyf, and be with childe.
Noght wol I knowe companye of man.
Now help me, lady, sith ye may and can,
For tho thre formes that thou hast in thee.
And Palamon, that hath swich love to me,
 2315And eek Arcite, that loveth me so sore,
This grace I preye thee with-oute more,
As sende love and pees bitwixe hem two;
 (1460)And fro me turne awey hir hertes
That al hir hote love, and hir desyr,
 2320And al hir bisy torment, and hir fyr
Be queynt, or turned in another place;
And if so be thou wolt not do me grace,
Or if my destinee be shapen so,
That I shal nedes have oon of hem two,
 2325As sende me him that most desireth me.

Bihold, goddesse of clene chastitee,
The bittre teres that on my chekes falle.
 (1470)Sin thou are mayde, and keper of us alle,
My maydenhede thou kepe and wel conserve,
 2330And whyl I live a mayde, I wol thee serve.’

“Send love and peace betwixt them two.” The peace would be opposed to what Mars gives; but so would the love be opposed to what Venus gives!

The fyres brenne up-on the auter clere,
Whyl Emelye was thus in hir preyere;
But sodeinly she saugh a sighte queynte,
For right anon oon of the fyres queynte,
 2335And quiked agayn, and after that anon
That other fyr was queynt, and al agon;
And as it queynte, it made a whistelinge,
 (1480)As doon thise wete brondes in hir brenninge,
And at the brondes ende out-ran anoon
 2340As it were blody dropes many oon;
For which so sore agast was Emelye,
That she was wel ny mad, and gan to crye,
For she ne wiste what it signifyed;
But only for the fere thus hath she cryed,
 2345And weep, that it was pitee for to here.
And ther-with-al Diane gan appere,
With bowe in hond, right as an hunteresse,
 (1490)And seyde: ‘Doghter, stint thyn hevinesse.
Among the goddes hye it is affermed,
 2350And by eterne word write and confermed,
Thou shalt ben wedded un-to oon of tho
That han for thee so muchel care and wo;
But un-to which of hem I may nat telle.
Farwel, for I ne may no lenger dwelle.
 2355The fyres which that on myn auter brenne
Shul thee declaren, er that thou go henne,
Thyn aventure of love, as in this cas.’
 (1500)And with that word, the arwes in the cas
Of the goddesse clateren faste and ringe,
 2360And forth she wente, and made a vanisshinge;
For which this Emelye astoned was,
And seyde, ‘What amounteth this, allas!
I putte me in thy proteccioun,
Diane, and in thy disposicioun.’
 2365And hoom she gooth anon the nexte weye.
This is theffect, ther is namore to seye.


The nexte houre of Mars folwinge this,
 (1510)Arcite un-to the temple walked is
Of fierse Mars,
to doon his sacrifyse,
 2370With alle the rytes of his payen wyse.
With pitous herte and heigh devocioun,
Right thus to Mars he seyde his orisoun:


‘O stronge god, that in the regnes colde
Of Trace honoured art, and lord y-holde,
 2375And hast in every regne and every lond
Of armes al the brydel in thyn hond,
And hem fortunest as thee list devyse,
 (1520)Accept of me my pitous sacrifyse.
If so be that my youthe may deserve,
 2380And that my might be worthy for to serve
Thy godhede, that I may been oon of thyne,
Than preye I thee to rewe up-on my pyne.
For thilke peyne, and thilke hote fyr,
In which thou whylom brendest for desyr,
 2385Whan that thou usedest the grete beautee
Of fayre yonge fresshe Venus free,

And haddest hir in armes at thy wille,
 (1530)Al-though thee ones on a tyme misfille
Whan Vulcanus had caught thee in his las,
 2390And fond thee ligging by his wyf, allas!
For thilke sorwe that was in thyn herte,
Have routhe as wel up-on my peynes smerte.
I am yong and unkonning, as thou wost,
And, as I trowe, with love offended most,
 2395That ever was any lyves creature;
For she, that dooth me al this wo endure,
Ne reccheth never wher I sinke or flete.
 (1540)And wel I woot, er she me mercy hete,
I moot with strengthe winne hir in the place;
 2400And wel I woot, withouten help or grace
Of thee, ne may my strengthe noght availle.
Than help me, lord, to-morwe in my bataille,
For thilke fyr that whylom brente thee,
As wel as thilke fyr now brenneth me;
 2405And do that I to-morwe have victorie.
Myn be the travaille, and thyn be the glorie!
Thy soverein temple wol I most honouren
 (1550)Of any place, and alwey most labouren
In thy plesaunce and in thy craftes stronge,
 2410And in thy temple I wol my baner honge,
And alle the armes of my companye;
And evere-mo, un-to that day I dye,
Eterne fyr I wol biforn thee finde.
And eek to this avow I wol me binde:
 2415My berd, myn heer that hongeth long adoun,
That never yet ne felte offensioun
Of rasour nor of shere, I wol thee yive,
 (1560)And ben thy trewe servant whyl I live.

Now lord, have routhe up-on my sorwes sore,
 2420Yif me victorie, I aske thee namore.’

So Chaucer knows the story found in Homer. He will later mention the death of Hector.

How can one truly serve Mars? War is not an ideal, but a renunciation or denial.

The preyere stinte of Arcita the stronge,
The ringes on the temple-dore that honge,
And eek the dores, clatereden ful faste,
Of which Arcita som-what him agaste.
 2425The fyres brende up-on the auter brighte,
That it gan al the temple for to lighte;
And swete smel the ground anon up-yaf,
 (1570)And Arcita anon his hand up-haf,
And more encens in-to the fyr he caste,
 2430With othere rytes mo; and atte laste
The statue of Mars bigan his hauberk ringe.
And with that soun he herde a murmuringe
Ful lowe and dim, that sayde thus, ‘Victorie:’

For which he yaf to Mars honour and glorie.
 2435And thus with Ioye, and hope wel to fare,
Arcite anon un-to his inne is fare,
As fayn as fowel is of the brighte sonne.


 (1580)And right anon swich stryf ther is bigonne
For thilke graunting, in the hevene above,
 2440Bitwixe Venus, the goddesse of love,
And Mars, the sterne god armipotente,
That Iupiter was bisy it to stente;
Til that the pale Saturnus the colde,
That knew so manye of aventures olde,
 2445Fond in his olde experience an art,
That he ful sone hath plesed every part.

As sooth is sayd, elde hath greet avantage;
 (1590)In elde is bothe wisdom and usage;
Men may the olde at-renne, and noght at-rede.
 2450Saturne anon, to stinten stryf and drede,
Al be it that it is agayn his kynde,
Of al this stryf he gan remedie fynde.


‘My dere doghter Venus,’ quod Saturne,
‘My cours, that hath so wyde for to turne,
 2455Hath more power than wot any man.
Myn is the drenching in the see so wan;
Myn is the prison in the derke cote;
 (1600)Myn is the strangling and hanging by the throte;
The murmure, and the cherles rebelling,
 2460The groyning, and the pryvee empoysoning:
I do vengeance and pleyn correccioun
Whyl I dwelle in the signe of the leoun.

Myn is the ruine of the hye halles,
The falling of the toures and of the walles
 2465Up-on the mynour or the carpenter.
I slow Sampsoun in shaking the piler;
And myne be the maladyes colde,
 (1610)The derke tresons, and the castes olde;
My loking is the fader of pestilence.
 2470Now weep namore, I shal doon diligence
That Palamon, that is thyn owne knight,
Shal have his lady, as thou hast him hight.
Though Mars shal helpe his knight, yet nathelees
Bitwixe yow ther moot be som tyme pees,
 2475Al be ye noght of o complexioun,
That causeth al day swich divisioun.
I am thin ayel, redy at thy wille;
 (1620)Weep thou namore, I wol thy lust fulfille.’


Now wol I stinten of the goddes above,
 2480Of Mars, and of Venus, goddesse of love,
And telle yow, as pleynly as I can,
The grete effect, for which that I bigan.

Explicit tercia pars. Sequitur pars quarta.

Greet was the feste in Athenes that day,
And eek the lusty seson of that May
 2485Made every wight to been in swich plesaunce,
That al that Monday Iusten they and daunce,
And spenden it in Venus heigh servyse.

 (1630)But by the cause that they sholde ryse
Erly, for to seen the grete fight,
 2490Unto hir reste wente they at night.
And on the morwe, whan that day gan springe,
Of hors and harneys, noyse and clateringe
Ther was in hostelryes al aboute;
And to the paleys rood ther many a route
 2495Of lordes, up-on stedes and palfreys.
Ther maystow seen devysing of herneys
So uncouth and so riche, and wroght so weel
 (1640)Of goldsmithrie, of browding, and of steel;
The sheeldes brighte, testers, and trappures;
 2500Gold-hewen helmes, hauberks, cote-armures;
Lordes in paraments on hir courseres,
Knightes of retenue, and eek squyeres
Nailinge the speres, and helmes bokelinge,
Gigginge of sheeldes, with layneres lacinge;
 2505Ther as need is, they weren no-thing ydel;
The fomy stedes on the golden brydel
Gnawinge, and faste the armurers also
 (1650)With fyle and hamer prikinge to and fro;
Yemen on fote, and communes many oon
 2510With shorte staves, thikke as they may goon;
Pypes, trompes, nakers, clariounes,
That in the bataille blowen blody sounes;
The paleys ful of peples up and doun,
Heer three, ther ten, holding hir questioun,
 2515Divyninge of thise Thebane knightes two.
Somme seyden thus, somme seyde it shal be so;
Somme helden with him with the blake berd,
 (1660)Somme with the balled, somme with the thikke-herd;
Somme sayde, he loked grim and he wolde fighte;
 2520He hath a sparth of twenty pound of wighte.
Thus was the halle ful of divyninge,
Longe after that the sonne gan to springe.


The grete Theseus, that of his sleep awaked
With minstralcye and noyse that was maked,
 2525Held yet the chambre of his paleys riche,
Til that the Thebane knightes, bothe y-liche
Honoured, were into the paleys fet.
 (1670)Duk Theseus was at a window set,

Arrayed right as he were a god in trone.
 2530The peple preesseth thider-ward ful sone
Him for to seen, and doon heigh reverence,
And eek to herkne his hest and his sentence.


An heraud on a scaffold made an ho,
Til al the noyse of the peple was y-do;
 2535And whan he saugh the peple of noyse al stille,
Tho showed he the mighty dukes wille.


The lord hath of his heigh discrecioun
 (1680)Considered, that it were destruccioun
To gentil blood, to fighten in the gyse
 2540Of mortal bataille now in this empryse;
Wherfore, to shapen that they shul not dye,
He wol his firste purpos modifye.

No man therfor, up peyne of los of lyf,
No maner shot, ne pollax, ne short knyf
 2545Into the listes sende, or thider bringe;
Ne short swerd for to stoke, with poynt bytinge,
No man ne drawe, ne bere it by his syde.
 (1690)Ne no man shal un-to his felawe ryde
But o cours, with a sharp y-grounde spere;
 2550Foyne, if him list, on fote, him-self to were.
And he that is at meschief, shal be take,
And noght slayn, but be brought un-to the stake

That shal ben ordeyned on either syde;
But thider he shal by force, and ther abyde.
 2555And if so falle, the chieftayn be take
On either syde, or elles slee his make,
No lenger shal the turneyinge laste.
 (1700)God spede yow; goth forth, and ley on faste.
With long swerd and with maces fight your fille.
 2560Goth now your wey; this is the lordes wille.’


The voys of peple touchede the hevene,
So loude cryden they with mery stevene:
‘God save swich a lord, that is so good,
He wilneth no destruccioun of blood!’
 2565Up goon the trompes and the melodye.
And to the listes rit the companye
By ordinaunce, thurgh-out the citee large,
 (1710)Hanged with cloth of gold, and nat with sarge.
Ful lyk a lord this noble duk gan ryde,
 2570Thise two Thebanes up-on either syde;
And after rood the quene, and Emelye,
And after that another companye
Of oon and other, after hir degree.
And thus they passen thurgh-out the citee,
 2575And to the listes come they by tyme.
It nas not of the day yet fully pryme,
Whan set was Theseus ful riche and hye,
 (1720)Ipolita the quene and Emelye,
And other ladies in degrees aboute.
 2580Un-to the seetes preesseth al the route.
And west-ward, thurgh the gates under Marte,
and eek the hundred of his parte,
With baner reed is entred right anon;
And in that selve moment Palamon
 2585Is under Venus, est-ward in the place,

With baner whyt, and hardy chere and face.
In al the world, to seken up and doun,
 (1730)So even with-outen variacioun,
Ther nere swiche companyes tweye.
 2590For ther nas noon so wys that coude seye,
That any hadde of other avauntage
Of worthinesse, ne of estaat, ne age,
So even were they chosen, for to gesse.
And in two renges faire they hem dresse.
 2595Whan that hir names rad were everichoon,
That in hir nombre gyle were ther noon,
Tho were the gates shet, and cryed was loude:
 (1740)‘Do now your devoir, yonge knightes proude!’


The heraudes lefte hir priking up and doun;
 2600Now ringen trompes loude and clarioun;
Ther is namore to seyn, but west and est
In goon the speres ful sadly in arest;
In goth the sharpe spore in-to the syde.
Ther seen men who can Iuste, and who can ryde;
 2605Ther shiveren shaftes up-on sheeldes thikke;
He feleth thurgh the herte-spoon the prikke.
Up springen speres twenty foot on highte;
 (1750)Out goon the swerdes as the silver brighte.
The helmes they to-hewen and to-shrede;
 2610Out brest the blood, with sterne stremes rede.
With mighty maces the bones they to-breste.
He thurgh the thikkeste of the throng gan threste.
Ther stomblen stedes stronge, and doun goth al.
He rolleth under foot as dooth a bal.
 2615He foyneth on his feet with his tronchoun,
And he him hurtleth with his hors adoun.
He thurgh the body is hurt, and sithen y-take,
 (1760)Maugree his heed, and broght un-to the stake,
As forward was, right ther he moste abyde;
 2620Another lad is on that other syde.
And som tyme dooth hem Theseus to reste,
Hem to refresshe, and drinken if hem leste.
Ful ofte a-day han thise Thebanes two
Togidre y-met, and wroght his felawe wo;
 2625Unhorsed hath ech other of hem tweye.
Ther nas no tygre in the vale of Galgopheye,
Whan that hir whelp is stole, whan it is lyte,
 (1770)So cruel on the hunte, as is Arcite
For Ielous herte upon this Palamoun:
 2630Ne in Belmarye ther nis so fel leoun,
That hunted is, or for his hunger wood,
Ne of his praye desireth so the blood,
As Palamon to sleen his fo Arcite.

The Ielous strokes on hir helmes byte;
 2635Out renneth blood on bothe hir sydes rede.


Som tyme an ende ther is of every dede;
For er the sonne un-to the reste wente,
 (1780)The stronge king Emetreus gan hente
This Palamon,
as he faught with Arcite,
 2640And made his swerd depe in his flesh to byte;
And by the force of twenty is he take
Unyolden, and y-drawe unto the stake.

And in the rescous of this Palamoun
The stronge king Ligurge is born adoun;
 2645And king Emetreus, for al his strengthe,
Is born out of his sadel a swerdes lengthe,
So hitte him Palamon er he were take;
 (1790)But al for noght, he was broght to the stake.
His hardy herte mighte him helpe naught;
 2650He moste abyde, whan that he was caught
By force, and eek by composicioun.


Who sorweth now but woful Palamoun,
That moot namore goon agayn to fighte?
And whan that Theseus had seyn this sighte,
 2655Un-to the folk that foghten thus echoon
He cryde,Ho! namore, for it is doon!
I wol be trewe Iuge, and no partye.
 (1800)Arcite of Thebes shal have Emelye,
That by his fortune hath hir faire y-wonne.’
 2660Anon ther is a noyse of peple bigonne
For Ioye of this, so loude and heigh with-alle,
It semed that the listes sholde falle.


What can now faire Venus doon above?
What seith she now? what dooth this quene of love?
 2665But wepeth so, for wanting of hir wille,
Til that hir teres in the listes fille;
She seyde: ‘I am ashamed, doutelees.’
 (1810)Saturnus seyde: ‘Doghter, hold thy pees.
Mars hath his wille, his knight hath al his bone,
 2670And, by myn heed, thou shalt ben esed sone.’


The trompes, with the loude minstralcye,
The heraudes, that ful loude yolle and crye,
Been in hir wele for Ioye of daun Arcite.
But herkneth me, and stinteth now a lyte,
 2675Which a miracle ther bifel anon.


This fierse Arcite hath of his helm y-don,
And on a courser, for to shewe his face,
 (1820)He priketh endelong the large place,
Loking upward up-on this Emelye;
 2680And she agayn him caste a freendlich ye,
(For wommen, as to speken in comune,
They folwen al the favour of fortune
And she was al his chere, as in his herte.
Out of the ground a furie infernal sterte,
 2685From Pluto sent, at requeste of Saturne,

For which his hors for fere gan to turne,
And leep asyde, and foundred as he leep;
 (1830)And, er that Arcite may taken keep,
He pighte him on the pomel of his heed,

 2690That in the place he lay as he were deed,
His brest to-brosten with his sadel-bowe.
As blak he lay as any cole or crowe,
So was the blood y-ronnen in his face.
Anon he was y-born out of the place
 2695With herte soor, to Theseus paleys.
Tho was he corven out of his harneys,
And in a bed y-brought ful faire and blyve,
 (1840)For he was yet in memorie and alyve,
And alway crying after Emelye.


 2700Duk Theseus, with al his companye,
Is comen hoom to Athenes his citee,

With alle blisse and greet solempnitee.
Al be it that this aventure was falle,
He nolde noght disconforten hem alle.
 2705Men seyde eek, that Arcite shal nat dye;
He shal ben heled of his maladye.
And of another thing they were as fayn,
 (1850)That of hem alle was ther noon y-slayn,
Al were they sore y-hurt, and namely oon,
 2710That with a spere was thirled his brest-boon.
To othere woundes, and to broken armes,
Some hadden slaves, and some hadden charmes;
Fermacies of herbes, and eek save
They dronken, for they wolde hir limes have.
 2715For which this noble duk, as he wel can,
Conforteth and honoureth every man,
And made revel al the longe night,
 (1860)Un-to the straunge lordes, as was right.
Ne ther was holden no disconfitinge,
 2720But as a Iustes or a tourneyinge;
For soothly ther was no disconfiture,
For falling nis nat but an aventure;
Ne to be lad with fors un-to the stake
Unyolden, and with twenty knightes take,
 2725O persone allone, with-outen mo,
And haried forth by arme, foot, and to,
And eek his stede driven forth with staves,
 (1870)With footmen, bothe yemen and eek knaves,
It nas aretted him no vileinye,
 2730Ther may no man clepen it cowardye.


For which anon duk Theseus leet crye,
To stinten alle rancour and envye,
The gree as wel of o syde as of other,

And either syde y-lyk, as otheres brother;
 2735And yaf hem yiftes after hir degree,
And fully heeld a feste dayes three;
And conveyed the kinges worthily
 (1880)Out of his toun a Iournee largely.
And hoom wente every man the righte way.
 2740Ther was namore, but ‘far wel, have good day!’
Of this bataille I wol namore endyte,
But speke of Palamon and of Arcite.


Swelleth the brest of Arcite, and the sore
Encreesseth at his herte more and more.
 2745The clothered blood, for any lechecraft,
Corrupteth, and is in his bouk y-laft,
That neither veyne-blood, ne ventusinge,
 (1890)Ne drinke of herbes may ben his helpinge.
The vertu expulsif, or animal,
 2750Fro thilke vertu cleped natural
Ne may the venim voyden, ne expelle.
The pypes of his longes gonne to swelle,
And every lacerte in his brest adoun
Is shent with venim and corrupcioun.
 2755Him gayneth neither, for to gete his lyf,
Vomyt upward, ne dounward laxatif;
Al is to-brosten thilke regioun,
 (1900)Nature hath now no dominacioun.
And certeinly, ther nature wol nat wirche,
 2760Far-wel, phisyk! go ber the man to chirche!
This al and som, that Arcita mot dye,
For which he sendeth after Emelye,
And Palamon,
that was his cosin dere;
Than seyde he thus, as ye shul after here.


 2765‘Naught may the woful spirit in myn herte
Declare o poynt of alle my sorwes smerte
To yow, my lady, that I love most;
 (1910)But I biquethe the service of my gost
To yow aboven every creature,
 2770Sin that my lyf may no lenger dure.
Allas, the wo! allas, the peynes stronge,
That I for yow have suffred, and so longe!
Allas, the deeth! allas, myn Emelye!
Allas, departing of our companye!
 2775Allas, myn hertes quene! allas, my wyf!
Myn hertes lady, endere of my lyf!
What is this world? what asketh men to have?
 (1920)Now with his love, now in his colde grave
Allone, with-outen any companye.
 2780Far-wel, my swete fo! myn Emelye!
And softe tak me in your armes tweye,
For love of God, and herkneth what I seye.’


‘I have heer with my cosin Palamon
Had stryf and rancour, many a day a-gon,
 2785For love of yow, and for my Ielousye.
And Iupiter so wis my soule gye,
To speken of a servant proprely,
 (1930)With alle circumstaunces trewely,
That is to seyn, trouthe, honour, and knighthede,
 2790Wisdom, humblesse, estaat, and heigh kinrede,
Fredom, and al that longeth to that art,
So Iupiter have of my soule part,
As in this world right now ne knowe I non
So worthy to ben loved as Palamon,

 2795That serveth yow, and wol don al his lyf.
And if that ever ye shul been a wyf,
Foryet nat Palamon, the gentil man.’
 (1940)And with that word his speche faille gan,
For from his feet up to his brest was come
 2800The cold of deeth,
that hadde him overcome.
And yet more-over, in his armes two
The vital strengthe is lost, and al ago.
Only the intellect, with-outen more,
That dwelled in his herte syk and sore,
 2805Gan faillen, when the herte felte deeth,
Dusked his eyen two, and failled breeth.
But on his lady yet caste he his ye;
 (1950)His laste word was, ‘mercy, Emelye!’
His spirit chaunged hous, and wente ther,
 2810As I cam never, I can nat tellen wher.
Therfor I stinte, I nam no divinistre;
Of soules finde I nat in this registre,
Ne me ne list thilke opiniouns to telle
Of hem, though that they wryten wher they dwelle.
 2815Arcite is cold, ther Mars his soule gye;
Now wol I speken forth of Emelye.


Shrighte Emelye, and howleth Palamon,
 (1960)And Theseus his suster took anon
Swowninge, and bar hir fro the corps away.
 2820What helpeth it to tarien forth the day,
To tellen how she weep, bothe eve and morwe?
For in swich cas wommen have swich sorwe,
Whan that hir housbonds been from hem ago,
That for the more part they sorwen so,
 2825Or elles fallen in swich maladye,
That at the laste certeinly they dye.


Infinite been the sorwes and the teres
 (1970)Of olde folk, and folk of tendre yeres,
In al the toun, for deeth of this Theban;
 2830For him ther wepeth bothe child and man;
So greet a weping was ther noon, certayn,
Whan Ector was y-broght, al fresh y-slayn,
To Troye;
allas! the pitee that was ther,
Cracching of chekes, rending eek of heer.
 2835‘Why woldestow be deed,’ thise wommen crye,
‘And haddest gold y-nough, and Emelye?’
No man mighte gladen Theseus,
 (1980)Savinge his olde fader Egeus,

That knew this worldes transmutacioun,
 2840As he had seyn it chaungen up and doun,
Ioye after wo, and wo after gladnesse:
And shewed hem ensamples and lyknesse.

Again, knowledge of Homer.

‘Right as ther deyed never man,’ quod he,
‘That he ne livede in erthe in som degree,
 2845Right so ther livede never man,’ he seyde,
‘In al this world, that som tyme he ne deyde.
This world nis but a thurghfare ful of wo,
 (1990)And we ben pilgrimes, passinge to and fro;

Deeth is an ende of every worldly sore.’
 2850And over al this yet seyde he muchel more
To this effect, ful wysly to enhorte
The peple, that they sholde hem reconforte.


Duk Theseus, with al his bisy cure,
Caste now wher that the sepulture
 2855Of good Arcite may best y-maked be,

And eek most honurable in his degree.
And at the laste he took conclusioun,
 (2000)That ther as first Arcite and Palamoun
Hadden for love the bataille hem bitwene,

 2860That in that selve grove, swote and grene,
Ther as he hadde his amorous desires,
His compleynt, and for love his hote fires,
He wolde make a fyr, in which thoffice
Funeral he mighte al accomplice;

 2865And leet comaunde anon to hakke and hewe
The okes olde, and leye hem on a rewe
In colpons wel arrayed for to brenne;
 (2010)His officers with swifte feet they renne
And ryde anon at his comaundement.
 2870And after this, Theseus hath y-sent
After a bere, and it al over-spradde
With cloth of gold, the richest that he hadde.
And of the same suyte he cladde Arcite;
Upon his hondes hadde he gloves whyte;
 2875Eek on his heed a croune of laurer grene,
And in his hond a swerd ful bright and kene.
He leyde him bare the visage on the bere,
 (2020)Therwith he weep that pitee was to here.
And for the peple sholde seen him alle,
 2880Whan it was day, he broghte him to the halle,
That roreth of the crying and the soun.


Tho cam this woful Theban Palamoun,
With flotery berd, and ruggy asshy heres,
In clothes blake, y-dropped al with teres;
 2885And, passing othere of weping, Emelye,
The rewfulleste of al the companye.
In as muche as the service sholde be
 (2030)The more noble and riche in his degree,
Duk Theseus leet forth three stedes bringe,
 2890That trapped were in steel al gliteringe,
And covered with the armes of daun Arcite.
Up-on thise stedes, that weren grete and whyte,
Ther seten folk, of which oon bar his sheeld,
Another his spere up in his hondes heeld;
 2895The thridde bar with him his bowe Turkeys,
Of brend gold was the cas, and eek the harneys;
And riden forth a pas with sorweful chere
 (2040)Toward the grove, as ye shul after here.
The nobleste of the Grekes that ther were
 2900Upon hir shuldres carieden the bere,
With slakke pas, and eyen rede and wete,
Thurgh-out the citee, by the maister-strete,
That sprad was al with blak, and wonder hye
Right of the same is al the strete y-wrye.
 2905Up-on the right hond wente old Egeus,
And on that other syde duk Theseus,
With vessels in hir hand of gold ful fyn,
 (2050)Al ful of hony, milk, and blood, and wyn;
Eek Palamon, with ful greet companye;
 2910And after that cam woful Emelye,
With fyr in honde, as was that tyme the gyse,
To do thoffice of funeral servyse.


Heigh labour, and ful greet apparaillinge
Was at the service and the fyr-makinge,

 2915That with his grene top the heven raughte,
And twenty fadme of brede the armes straughte;
This is to seyn, the bowes were so brode.
 (2060)Of stree first ther was leyd ful many a lode.
But how the fyr was maked up on highte,
 2920And eek the names how the trees highte,

As ook, firre, birch, asp, alder, holm, popler,
Wilow, elm, plane, ash, box, chasteyn, lind, laurer,
Mapul, thorn, beech, hasel, ew, whippeltree,
How they weren feld, shal nat be told for me;
 2925Ne how the goddes ronnen up and doun,
Disherited of hir habitacioun,

In which they woneden in reste and pees,
 (2070)Nymphes, Faunes, and Amadrides;
Ne how the bestes and the briddes alle
 2930Fledden for fere, whan the wode was falle;
Ne how the ground agast was of the light,
That was nat wont to seen the sonne bright;
Ne how the fyr was couched first with stree,
And than with drye stokkes cloven a three,
 2935And than with grene wode and spycerye,
And than with cloth of gold and with perrye,
And gerlandes hanging with ful many a flour,
 (2080)The mirre, thencens, with al so greet odour;
Ne how Arcite lay among al this,
 2940Ne what richesse aboute his body is;
Ne how that Emelye, as was the gyse,
Putte in the fyr of funeral servyse;
Ne how she swowned whan men made the fyr,
Ne what she spak, ne what was hir desyr;
 2945Ne what Ieweles men in the fyr tho caste,
Whan that the fyr was greet and brente faste;
Ne how som caste hir sheeld, and som hir spere,
 (2090)And of hir vestiments, whiche that they were,
And cuppes ful of wyn, and milk, and blood,
 2950Into the fyr, that brente as it were wood;
Ne how the Grekes with an huge route
Thryes riden al the fyr aboute
Up-on the left hand, with a loud shoutinge,
And thryes with hir speres clateringe;
 2955And thryës how the ladies gonne crye;
Ne how that lad was hom-ward Emelye;
Ne how Arcite is brent to asshen colde;
 (2100)Ne how that liche-wake was y-holde
Al thilke night, ne how the Grekes pleye
 2960The wake-pleyes, ne kepe I nat to seye;
Who wrastleth best naked, with oille enoynt,
Ne who that bar him best, in no disioynt.
I wol nat tellen eek how that they goon
Hoom til Athenes, whan the pley is doon;
 2965But shortly to the poynt than wol I wende,
And maken of my longe tale an ende.

Is there a name for the figure of denying you will say what you are effectively saying? Does the Knight employ this figure with a smile, though the subject be sombre?

By processe and by lengthe of certeyn yeres
 (2110)Al stinted is the moorning and the teres

Of Grekes, by oon general assent.
 2970Than semed me ther was a parlement
At Athenes,
up-on certeyn poynts and cas;
Among the whiche poynts y-spoken was
To have with certeyn contrees alliaunce,
And have fully of Thebans obeisaunce.
 2975For which this noble Theseus anon
Leet senden after gentil Palamon,

Unwist of him what was the cause and why;
 (2120)But in his blake clothes sorwefully
He cam at his comaundement in hye.
 2980Tho sente Theseus for Emelye.
Whan they were set, and hust was al the place,
And Theseus abiden hadde a space
Er any word cam from his wyse brest,
His eyen sette he ther as was his lest,
 2985And with a sad visage he syked stille,
And after that right thus he seyde his wille.


The firste moevere of the cause above,
 (2130)Whan he first made the faire cheyne of love,
Greet was theffect, and heigh was his entente;

 2990Wel wiste he why, and what ther-of he mente;
For with that faire cheyne of love he bond
The fyr, the eyr, the water, and the lond
In certeyn boundes, that they may nat flee;
That same prince and that moevere,’ quod he,
 2995‘Hath stablissed, in this wrecched world adoun,
Certeyne dayes and duracioun
To al that is engendred in this place,
 (2140)Over the whiche day they may nat pace,
Al mowe they yet tho dayes wel abregge;
 3000Ther needeth non auctoritee allegge,
For it is preved by experience,
But that me list declaren my sentence.
Than may men by this ordre wel discerne,
That thilke moevere stable is and eterne.
 3005Wel may men knowe, but it be a fool,
That every part deryveth from his hool.
For nature hath nat take his beginning
 (2150)Of no partye ne cantel of a thing,
But of a thing that parfit is and stable,

 3010Descending so, til it be corrumpable.
And therefore, of his wyse purveyaunce,
He hath so wel biset his ordinaunce,
That speces of thinges and progressiouns
Shullen enduren by successiouns,
 3015And nat eterne be,
with-oute lye:
This maistow understonde and seen at eye.’


‘Lo the ook, that hath so long a norisshinge
 (2160)From tyme that it first biginneth springe,
And hath so long a lyf, as we may see,
 3020Yet at the laste wasted is the tree.


‘Considereth eek, how that the harde stoon
Under our feet, on which we trede and goon,
Yit wasteth it, as it lyth by the weye.
The brode river somtyme wexeth dreye.
 3025The grete tounes see we wane and wende.

Than may ye see that al this thing hath ende.’


Of man and womman seen we wel also,
 (2170)That nedeth, in oon of thise termes two,
This is to seyn, in youthe or elles age,
 3030He moot ben deed, the king as shal a page;
Som in his bed, som in the depe see,
Som in the large feeld, as men may se;
Ther helpeth noght, al goth that ilke weye.
Thanne may I seyn that al this thing moot deye.
 3035What maketh this but Iupiter the king?
The which is prince and cause of alle thing,
Converting al un-to his propre welle,
 (2180)From which it is deryved, sooth to telle.
And here-agayns no creature on lyve
 3040Of no degree availleth for to stryve.’


Thanne is it wisdom, as it thinketh me,
To maken vertu of necessitee,

And take it wel, that we may nat eschue,
And namely that to us alle is due.
 3045And who-so gruccheth ought, he dooth folye,
And rebel is to him that al may gye.

And certeinly a man hath most honour
 (2190)To dyen in his excellence and flour,

Whan he is siker of his gode name;
 3050Than hath he doon his freend, ne him, no shame.
And gladder oghte his freend ben of his deeth,
Whan with honour up-yolden is his breeth,
Than whan his name apalled is for age;
For al forgeten is his vasselage.
 3055Than is it best, as for a worthy fame,
To dyen whan that he is best of name.
The contrarie of al this is wilfulnesse.
 (2200)Why grucchen we? why have we hevinesse,
That good Arcite, of chivalrye flour
 3060Departed is, with duetee and honour,
Out of this foule prison of this lyf?
Why grucchen heer his cosin and his wyf
Of his wel-fare
that loved hem so weel?
Can he hem thank? nay, God wot, never a deel,
 3065That bothe his soule and eek hem-self offende,
And yet they mowe hir lustes nat amende.

Grucchen is grudge; siker or sicker is secure. In the last line, “they” are Palamon and Emily?

‘What may I conclude of this longe serie,
 (2210)But, after wo, I rede us to be merie,
And thanken Iupiter of al his grace?
 3070And, er that we departen from this place,
I rede that we make, of sorwes two,
O parfyt Ioye, lasting ever-mo;
And loketh now, wher most sorwe is her-inne,
Ther wol we first amenden and biginne.’

Reden is read, as in advise.

 3075Suster,’ quod he, ‘this is my fulle assent,
With al thavys heer of my parlement,
That gentil Palamon, your owne knight,
 (2220)That serveth yow with wille, herte, and might,
And ever hath doon, sin that ye first him knewe,
 3080That ye shul, of your grace, up-on him rewe,
And taken him for housbonde and for lord:
Leen me your hond, for this is our acord.
Lat see now of your wommanly pitee.
He is a kinges brother sone, pardee;
 3085And, though he were a povre bacheler,
Sin he hath served yow so many a yeer,
And had for yow so greet adversitee,
 (2230)It moste been considered, leveth me;
For gentil mercy oghte to passen right.’


 3090Than seyde he thus to Palamon ful right;
‘I trowe ther nedeth litel sermoning
To make yow assente to this thing.
Com neer, and tak your lady by the hond.
Bitwixen hem was maad anon the bond,
 3095That highte matrimoine or mariage,
By al the counseil and the baronage.
And thus with alle blisse and melodye
 (2240)Hath Palamon y-wedded Emelye.
And God, that al this wyde world hath wroght,
 3100Sende him his love, that hath it dere a-boght.
For now is Palamon in alle wele,
Living in blisse, in richesse, and in hele;
And Emelye him loveth so tendrely,
And he hir serveth al-so gentilly,
 3105That never was ther no word hem bitwene
Of Ielousye, or any other tene.
Thus endeth Palamon and Emelye;

 (2250)And God save al this faire companye!—Amen.

Tene is teen (archaic): harm.

Here is ended the Knightes Tale.

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